CHAPTER 4
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

Chapter Outline

I. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) had 31 International Accounting Standards (IAS) and 6 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in force in May 2005.
A. In 2002, the IASB and U.S. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) agreed to work together to reduce differences between IFRSs and U.S. GAAP.

II. There are several types of differences between IFRSs and U.S. GAAP.
A. Definition differences. Differences in definitions can occur even though concepts are similar. Definition differences can lead to differences in recognition and/or measurement.
B. Recognition differences. Differences in recognition criteria and/or guidance related to (a) whether an item is recognized, (b) how it is recognized, and/or (c) when it is recognized (timing difference).
C. Measurement differences. Differences in approach for determining the amount recognized resulting from either (a) a difference in the method required, or (b) a difference in the detailed guidance for applying a similar method.
D. Alternatives. One set of standards allows a choice between two or more alternative methods; the other set of standards requires one specific method to be used.
E. Lack of requirements or guidance. IFRSs do not cover an issue addressed by U.S. GAAP, and vice versa.
F. Presentation differences. Differences in the presentation of items in the financial statements.
G. Disclosure differences. Differences in information presented in the notes to financial statements related to (a) whether a disclosure is required and/or (b) the manner in which a disclosure is required to be made.

III. A variety of differences exist between IFRSs and U.S. GAAP with respect to the recognition and measurement of assets.
A. Inventory – IFRSs require inventory to be reported on the balance sheet at the lower of cost or net realizable value; U.S. GAAP requires the lower of cost or replacement cost, with net realizable value as a ceiling and net realizable value less a normal profit margin as the floor. U.S. GAAP allows the use of LIFO; IFRSs do not.
B. Property, plant and equipment – subsequent to acquisition, IFRSs allow fixed assets to be reported on the balance sheet using a cost model (historical cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses) or a revaluation model (fair value at the balance sheet date less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses); U.S. GAAP requires the use of the cost model.
C. Development costs – when certain criteria are met, IFRSs require development costs to be capitalized as an asset and then amortized over their useful life; U.S. GAAP requires development costs to be expensed as incurred. An exception exists in U.S. GAAP for software development costs.

D. Impairment of assets – an asset is impaired under IFRSs when its carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the greater of net selling price and value in use. Value in use is calculated as the present value of future cash flows expected from continued use of the asset and from its disposal. An asset is impaired under U.S. GAAP when its carrying amount exceeds the undiscounted future cash flows expected from the asset’s continued use and disposal.
1. Measurement of impairment loss – the impairment loss under IFRSs is the difference between carrying amount and recoverable amount; under U.S. GAAP, the impairment loss is the amount by which carrying amount exceeds fair value. Recoverable amount and fair value are likely to be different.
2. Reversal of impairment loss – if subsequent to recognizing an impairment loss, the recoverable amount of an asset is determined to exceed its new carrying amount, IFRSs require the original impairment loss to be reversed; U.S. GAAP does not allow the reversal of a previously recognized impairment loss.
E. Borrowing costs – the benchmark treatment in IFRSs is to expense all borrowing costs when incurred, the allowed alternative is to capitalize borrowing costs to the extent they are attributable to the acquisition, construction, or production of a qualifying asset. The benchmark treatment is not allowed under U.S. GAAP; interest must be capitalized as part of a qualifying asset when certain criteria are met.
F. Leases – both IFRSs and U.S. GAAP distinguish between operating and finance (capitalized) leases. U.S. GAAP provides “bright line” tests to determine when a lease must be capitalized; IFRSs do not.

IV. A number of IASB standards deal primarily with disclosure and presentation issues, and in some cases requirements differ from U.S. GAAP.
A. IAS 1 requires presentation of a statement of cash flows. IAS 7 allows interest to be classified as operating, investing, or financing, whereas it always is classified as operating under U.S. GAAP.
B. IAS 8 generally requires changes in accounting policies to be handled retrospectively; unlike under U.S. GAAP, the cumulative effect of a change is not included in income.
C. IAS 14 requires disclosures for both business segments and geographical segments, with one being identified as the primary reporting format. The so-called management approach that requires the disclosure of operating segments used in U.S. GAAP is not followed.
D. IAS 34 requires interim periods to be treated as discrete accounting periods, whereas U.S. GAAP treats interim periods as an integral part of the full year.
E. IFRS 5 provides a more liberal definition of what qualifies as a discontinued operation than does U.S. GAAP.

Answers to Questions

1. Areas where IFRSs provide a benchmark and allowed alternative treatment with respect to assets include:
• Property, plant and equipment — measurement subsequent to initial recognition. Benchmark: cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Allowed alternative: revalued amount less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
• Purchased intangibles – measurement subsequent to initial recognition. Same as property, plant and equipment. However, fair value method is only applicable for intangibles with an active secondary market.
• Borrowing costs. Benchmark: no borrowing costs are capitalized as part of the cost of a qualifying asset. Allowed alternative: capitalize borrowing costs to the extent they are attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset.

2. In applying the lower of cost and market rule for inventories, IAS 2 defines market as net realizable value (NRV) and U.S. GAAP defines market as replacement cost (with NRV as a ceiling and NRV less normal profit margin as a floor).

3. The allowed alternative is to measure property, plant, and equipment at a revalued amount, measured as fair value at the date of remeasurement, less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

4. Under IAS 36, an impairment loss arises when an asset’s recoverable amount is less than its carrying value, where recoverable amount is the greater of net selling price and value in use. Value in use is determined as the expected future cash flows from use of the asset discounted to present value. The amount of the loss is the difference between carrying value and recoverable amount.
Under U.S. GAAP, an impairment loss arises when the expected future cash flows (undiscounted) from the use of the asset are less than its carrying value. If impairment exists, the amount of the loss is equal to the difference between carrying value and fair value, which can be determined in different ways.

5. The benchmark treatment under IAS 23 requires all borrowing costs to be expensed immediately. U.S. GAAP requires interest cost to be capitalized on so-called qualifying assets.

6. IAS 17 describes five situations that would normally lead to a lease being capitalized, but does not describe these as being absolute tests. The criteria implied in four of the situations are similar to the specific criteria in U.S. GAAP, but the IAS 17 criteria provide less “bright line” guidance. IAS 17 indicates that a lease would normally be capitalized when the lease term is for the major part of the leased asset’s life – U.S. GAAP specifically defines “major part” as 75%. IAS 17 also indicates that a lease would normally be capitalized when the present value of minimum lease payments is equal to substantially all the fair value of the leased asset – U.S. GAAP specifically defines “substantially all” as 90%. Determining whether a lease should be capitalized is an example of the principles-based approach followed in IFRSs versus the rules-based approach of U.S. GAAP.

7. The criteria for the disclosure and recognition of a contingent liability (loss) are very similar in both IAS 37 and U.S. GAAP. The main difference is that IAS 37 defines “probable” in the context of recognizing a contingent liability as “more likely than not.” U.S. GAAP does not provide a definition for “probable.” IAS 37 allows recognition of a contingent asset (gain) when the gain is “virtually certain,” implying that it can be recognized prior to actual realization. U.S. GAAP does not allow recognition of contingent gains. The gain must be realized before it can be recognized.

8. IAS 19 requires past service cost related (a) to retirees and vested active employees to be expensed immediately and (b) to non-vested employees to be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining vesting period. In contrast, U.S. GAAP requires the past service cost related (a) to retirees be amortized over their remaining expected life and (b) to active employees be amortized over their remaining service period.

Solutions to Exercises and Problems

1. Monroe Company – Inventory

IFRSs U.S. GAAP
Historical cost 20,000 Historical cost 20,000
Estimated selling price 17,000 Replacement cost 14,000
Costs to complete and sell 2,000 Net realizable value 15,000
Net realizable value 15,000 Normal profit margin 20%
Inventory loss 5,000 NRV – profit margin 11,600
Market 14,000
Inventory loss 6,000

a. (1) IFRSs: Year 1 Inventory loss $5,000
Year 2 Cost of goods sold $16,800
(2) U.S. GAAP: Year 1 Inventory loss $6,000
Year 2 Cost of goods sold $15,800

b. Year 1: IFRSs result in $1,000 larger income before tax, assets, and stockholders’ equity.
Year 2: IFRSs result in $1,000 smaller income before tax; assets and stockholders’ equity are the same at the end of Year 2 under both IFRSs and U.S. GAAP.

2. Lincoln Company – Research and Development Costs

a. IFRSs Year 1 Year 2 Research expense $6 million
Deferred development costs (asset) $4 million
Amortization expense – deferred development costs $800,000

U.S. GAAP
Research and development expense $10 million —

b. IFRSs result in $4 million larger income before tax in Year 1 and $800,000 smaller income before tax in Years 2-6 compared to U.S. GAAP.

Ignoring income taxes, total assets and total stockholders’ equity are larger under IFRSs by the following amounts:

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
$4,000,000 $3,200,000 $2,400,000 $1,600,000 $800,000 $0

3. Jefferson Company – Property, Plant and Equipment (measurement subsequent to acquisition)

Cost, 1/2/Y1 $10,000,000
Useful life 5 years
Annual depreciation $2,000,000
Book value, 12/31/Y2 $6,000,000

IFRSs Allowed Alternative
Fair value, 1/2/Y3 $12,000,000
Remaining useful life 3 years
Annual depreciation $4,000,000

a. Depreciation expense IFRSs U.S. GAAP
Years 1 and 2 $2,000,000 $2,000,000
Years 3, 4, and 5 $4,000,000 $2,000,000

Income before tax is the same under IFRSs and U.S. GAAP in Years 1 and 2. Income before tax is $2,000,000 smaller under IFRSs in Years 3, 4, and 5.

b. End of Year
Equipment (book value) 1 2 3 4 5
IFRSs
Beginning $10 mn $8 mn $6 mn $8 mn $4 mn
Revaluation 6 mn
Depreciation expense (2 mn) (2 mn) (4 mn) (4 mn) (4 mn)
Ending $8 mn $6 mn $8 mn $4 mn $0

U.S. GAAP
Beginning $10 mn $8 mn $6 mn $4 mn $2 mn
Depreciation expense (2 mn) (2 mn) (2 mn) (2 mn) (2 mn)
Ending $8 mn $6 mn $4 mn $2 mn $0

End of Year
Stockholders’ equity 1 2 3 4 5
IFRSs
Beginning $0 ($2 mn) ($4 mn) ($2 mn) ($6 mn)
Revaluation $6 mn
Depreciation expense ($2 mn) ($2 mn) ($4 mn) ($4 mn) ($4 mn)
Ending ($2 mn) ($4 mn) ($2 mn) ($6 mn) ($10 mn)
U.S. GAAP
Beginning $0 ($2 mn) ($4 mn) ($6 mn) ($8 mn)
Depreciation expense ($2 mn) ($2 mn) ($2 mn) ($2 mn) ($2 mn)
Ending ($2 mn) ($4 mn) ($6 mn) ($8 mn) ($10 mn)

4. Madison Company – Property, Plant and Equipment (impairment)

IFRSs U.S. GAAP
Carrying amount 10,000,000 Carrying amount 10,000,000
Net selling price 7,500,000 Future cash flows 10,000,000
Discounted future cash flows 8,000,000 No impairment 0
Value in use (larger amount) 8,000,000
Impairment loss 2,000,000

a. (1) IFRSs:
Year 1 Depreciation expense 2,000,000
Impairment loss 2,000,000

Years 2 – 6 Depreciation expense 1,600,000 (8,000,000/5 years)

(2) U.S. GAAP:
Years 1-6 Depreciation expense 2,000,000

b. Income before tax
IFRSs Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000)
Impairment loss (2,000,000) 0 0 0 0 0
Impact on income (4,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000)

U.S. GAAP Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000)
Impact on income (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000)

Diff. (IFRSs-U.S. GAAP) (2,000,000) 400,000 400,000 400,000 400,000 400,000

Total Assets
IFRSs Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Carrying value (at 1/1) 12,000,000 8,000,000 6,400,000 4,800,000 3,200,000 1,600,000
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000)
Impairment loss (2,000,000) 0 0 0 0 0
Carrying value (at 12/31) 8,000,000 6,400,000 4,800,000 3,200,000 1,600,000 0

U.S. GAAP Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Carrying value (at 1/1) 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000)
Carrying value (at 12/31) 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0

Diff. (IFRSs-U.S.GAAP) (2,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,200,000) (800,000) (400,000) 0

Total Stockholders’ Equity (ignoring income taxes)
IFRSs Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Beginning balance 0 (4,000,000) (5,600,000) (7,200,000) (8,800,000) (10,400,000)
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000) (1,600,000)
Impairment loss (2,000,000) 0 0 0 0 0
Ending balance (4,000,000) (5,600,000) (7,200,000) (8,800,000) (10,400,000) (12,000,000)

U.S. GAAP Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Beginning balance 0 (2,000,000) (4,000,000) (6,000,000) (8,000,000) (10,000,000)
Depreciation expense (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000) (2,000,000)
Ending balance (2,000,000) (4,000,000) (6,000,000) (8,000,000) (10,000,000) (12,000,000)

Diff. (IFRSs-U.S.GAAP) (2,000,000) (1,600,000) (1,200,000) (800,000) (400,000) 0

5. Garfield Company – Borrowing Costs (capitalization)

Borrowing 8,000,000
Interest rate 10%
Annual interest 800,000

Interest to be capitalized — Year 1 (U.S. GAAP)
Weighted-average accumulated expenditures 5,000,000
Interest rate 10%
Capitalized interest 500,000

a. (1) IFRSs Year 1 Year 2
Interest expense $800,000 $800,000
Depreciation expense* 0 400,000
Total $800,000 $1,200,000

* Cost $10,000,000
Less: Residual value (2,000,000)
Depreciable amount $8,000,000
Useful life 20 years
Annual depreciation expense $400,000

(2) U.S. GAAP Year 1 Year 2
Interest expense $300,000 $800,000
Depreciation expense** 0 425,000
Total $300,000 $1,250,000

** Cost (includes capitalized interest) $10,500,000
Less: Residual value (2,000,000)
Depreciable amount $8,500,000
Useful life 20 years
Annual depreciation expense $425,000

b. IFRSs income before tax is smaller in Year 1 by $500,000; larger in Years 2-21 by $25,000 each year. IFRSs total assets and total stockholders’ equity are smaller at EOY 1 by $500,000. This difference decreases by $25,000 each year through Year 21. At EOY 21, total assets and total stockholders’ equity are the same under IFRSs and U.S. GAAP.

6. Iptat International – Revaluation of Fixed Assets

a. Adjustment (a) relates to the depreciation of the revaluation amount on fixed assets. Adjustment (a) results in an addition to net income because the additional depreciation taken on the revaluation amount does not exist under U.S. GAAP. The addition to net income pertains to the current year only. The addition to net income in the current year plus the addition to net income in previous years is the cumulative effect on retained earnings, which is the shareholders’ equity account affected by adjustment (a). The addition to shareholders’ equity is greater than the addition to net income because of this cumulative effect.
b. Adjustment (b) relates to the revaluation surplus (increase in shareholders’ equity) that is recorded when fixed assets are revalued. This increase does not exist under U.S. GAAP and shareholders’ equity must be reduced accordingly. In this case, the shareholders’ equity account affected is Revaluation Surplus.

7. Xanxi Petrochemical Company – Goodwill and Gain on sale and leaseback

Prior to 2004, IFRSs required goodwill to be amortized, which was not the case under U.S. GAAP. Adjustment (a) adds back the goodwill amortization expense deducted in determining IFRS net I ncome resulting in an increase in U.S. GAAP net income. The addition to income flows through to retained earnings increasing shareholders’ equity. The addition to net income pertains to the current year only. The addition to net income in the current year plus the addition to net income in previous years is the cumulative effect on retained earnings. The addition to shareholders’ equity is greater than the addition to net income because of this cumulative effect.

If the lease in a sale-leaseback transaction is classified as an operating lease, IAS 17 requires the gain on such a transaction to be reported in income immediately, whereas U.S. GAAP requires the gain to be amortized over the life of the lease. Adjustment (b) subtracts the gain on sale/leaseback in the current year that was recognized in full under IFRSs. The amount of adjustment (b) is the difference between the entire gain recognized under IFRSs and the portion of the gain that would be recognized under U.S. GAAP (including amortization of gains that might have been generated in earlier years). The same amount should be subtracted from retained earnings reducing shareholders’ equity. From the fact that adjustment (b) reduced shareholders’ equity by a larger amount than it reduces net income, we can infer that Xanxi had one or more sale/leaseback gains in previous years.

8. Clinton Company – Calculation of Goodwill

Purchase price $250,000
Fair value of recorded net assets 80,000
Fair value of unrecorded assets (brands) 50,000
Fair value of in-process capitalizable development costs 20,000 *
Excess of purchase price over fair value of
recognized net assets (Goodwill) $100,000

* In-process development costs amount to $40,000 ($100,000 x 40%), one-half of which are capitalizable under IAS 38.

9. Buch Corporation – Determination of Impairment Loss and Subsequent Reversal

Cost $100,000
Useful life 10 years
Residual value $0
Annual depreciation charge $10,000

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Carrying value (at 1/1) $100,000 $90,000 $80,000
Depreciation expense (10,000) (10,000) (10,000)
Carrying value (at 12/31) $90,000 $80,000 $70,000

Test for impairment at December 31, Year 3:

Carrying value $70,000
Net selling price ($70,000 – $7,000) $63,000
Value in use $55,000
Recoverable amount (greater of the two) 63,000
Impairment loss $ 7,000

The impairment loss of $7,000 would be recognized in income on December 31, Year 3 with an offsetting reduction in the asset’s carrying value. As a result, the asset will be reported at on the December 31, Year 3 balance sheet at a carrying value of $63,000. This amount will be depreciated over the remaining useful life of 7 years on a straight-line basis.

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Carrying value (at 1/1) $100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $63,000 $54,000
Depreciation expense (10,000) (10,000) (10,000) (9,000) (9,000)
Impairment loss (7,000)
Carrying value (at 12/31) $90,000 $80,000 $63,000 $54,000 $45,000

Review for reversal of impairment loss at December 31, Year 5:
Carrying value $45,000
Net selling price ($50,000 – $7,000) $43,000
Value in use $53,000
Recoverable amount (greater of the two) 53,000
Impairment loss $ 0

IAS 36 requires an impairment loss to be reversed if the recoverable amount of an asset is determined to exceed its new carrying amount, but only if there are changes in the estimates used to determine the original impairment loss or there is a change in the basis for determining the recoverable amount (from value in use to net selling price or vice versa). Because recoverable amount has changed from net selling price at the end of Year 3 to value in use at the end of Year 5, and the recoverable amount is greater than the carrying value at the end of Year 5, the impairment loss recognized in Year 3 should be reversed. However, the carrying value of the asset after reversal of the impairment loss should not exceed what it would have been if no impairment loss had been recognized. The carrying value of Machine Z at December 31, Year 5 would have been $50,000 if no impairment loss had been recognized in Year 3 ($100,000 original cost less $10,000 annual depreciation for five years). Thus, an increase in the carrying value of the asset of $5,000 should be recognized at December 31, Year 5 with a reversal of impairment loss in an equal amount. The asset’s carrying value on the December 31, Year 5 balance sheet will be $50,000 ($45,000 + $5,000). This amount will be depreciated over the remaining useful life of 5 years on a straight-line basis.

Summary of amounts to be reported on the balance sheet and income statement in Years 1 – 5:
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Carrying value (at 1/1) $100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $63,000 $54,000
Income Statement
Depreciation expense (10,000) (10,000) (10,000) (9,000) (9,000)
Impairment loss (7,000)
Reversal of impairment loss 5,000
Carrying value (at 12/31) $90,000 $80,000 $63,000 $54,000 $50,000

Income statement effect (10,000) (10,000) (17,000) (9,000) (4,000)

10. Holzer Company – Analysis of Four Combinations Related to Capitalization of Interest and Measurement of Property, Plant and Equipment Subsequent to Initial Recognition
(Application of Alternative Treatments Allowed in IAS 16 and IAS 23)

Combination 1:

IAS 16 Benchmark
Carry asset on the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

IAS 23 Benchmark
All borrowing costs are expensed immediately

Annual interest ($900,000 x 10%) $90,000
Cost of building $1,000,000
Annual depreciation (beginning in Year 2) ($1,000,000 / 40 years) $25,000

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Income Statement
Interest expense $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000
Depreciation expense — $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000
Total expense $90,000 $115,000 $115,000 $115,000 $115,000
Balance Sheet
Building (at 1/1) $0 $1,000,000 $975,000 $950,000 $925,000
Depreciation (25,000) (25,000) (25,000) (25,000)
Building (at 12/31) $1,000,000 $975,000 $950,000 $925,000 $900,000

Combination 2:

IAS 16 Benchmark
Carry asset on the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

IAS 23 Alternative Treatment
Capitalize borrowing costs borrowing costs attributable to the construction of qualifying assets.

Annual interest ($900,000 x 10%) $90,000
Interest to be capitalized in Year 1 ($500,000* x 10%) 50,000
Interest expense in Year 1 $40,000

* Expenditures of $1,000,000 were made evenly throughout the year, so the average accumulated expenditures during the year are $500,000 ($1,000,000 / 2).

Cost of building:
Construction costs $1,000,000
Capitalized interest 50,000
Total initial cost of building $1,050,000

Annual depreciation (beginning in Year 2) ($1,050,000 / 40 years) $26,250

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Income Statement
Interest expense $40,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000
Depreciation expense — $26,250 $26,250 $26,250 $26,250
Total expense $40,000 $116,250 $116,250 $116,250 $116,250
Balance Sheet
Building (at 1/1) $0 $1,050,000 $1,023,750 $997,500 $971,250
Depreciation (26,250) (26,250) (26,250) (26,250)
Building (at 12/31) $1,050,000 $1,023,750 $997,500 $971,250 $945,000

Combination 3:

IAS 16 Allowed Alternative
Carry asset on the balance sheet at revalued amount equal to fair value less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

IAS 23 Benchmark
All borrowing costs are expensed immediately

Annual interest ($900,000 x 10%) $90,000
Cost of building $1,000,000
Annual depreciation (beginning in Year 2) ($1,000,000 / 40 years) $25,000

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Income Statement
Interest expense $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000
Depreciation expense — $25,000 $25,000 $25,5262 $25,526
Total expense $90,000 $115,000 $115,000 $115,526 $115,526

Balance Sheet
Building (at 1/1) $0 $1,000,000 $975,000 $970,000 $944,474
Depreciation (25,000) (25,000) (25,526) (25,526)
Building (at 12/31) $1,000,000 $975,000 $950,000 $944,474 $918,948
Revaluation surplus 20,0001 31,0523
Building (at 12/31) $1,000,000 $975,000 $970,000 $975,526 $918,948

1At December 31,Year 3, the fair value of the building is determined to be $970,000. The carrying value of the building is increased by $20,000, with an equal revaluation surplus recognized in shareholders’ equity.
2 Depreciation in Year 4 is $25,526 ($970,000 / 38 remaining years).
3 At December 31,Year 5, the fair value of the building is determined to be $950,000. The carrying value of the building is increased by $31,052, with an equal revaluation surplus recognized in shareholders’ equity.

Combination 4:

IAS 16 Allowed Alternative
Carry asset on the balance sheet at revalued amount equal to fair value less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

IAS 23 Allowed Alternative
Capitalize borrowing costs attributable to the construction of qualifying assets.

Annual interest ($900,000 x 10%) $90,000
Interest to be capitalized in Year 1 ($500,000 x 10%) 50,000
Interest expense in Year 1 $40,000

Cost of building:
Construction costs $1,000,000
Capitalized interest 50,000
Total initial cost of building $1,050,000

Annual depreciation (beginning in Year 2) ($1,050,000 / 40 years) $26,250

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Income Statement
Interest expense 40,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000 $90,000
Depreciation expense — $26,250 $26,250 $25,5262 $25,526
Subtotal $40,000 $116,250 $116,250 $115,526 $115,526
Loss on revaluation 27,500
Reversal of revaluation loss (27,500)
Total expense $40,000 $116,250 $143,750 $115,526 $88,026
Balance Sheet
Building (at 1/1) $0 $1,050,000 $975,000 $970,000 $944,474
Depreciation (26,250) (26,250) (25,526) (25,526)
Building (at 12/31) $1,050,000 $1,023,750 $997,500 $944,474 $918,948
Loss on revaluation (27,500)1
Reversal of revaluation loss 27,5003
Revaluation surplus 3,5523
Building (at 12/31) $1,050,000 $1,023,750 $970,000 $944,474 $950,000

1At December 31,Year 3, the fair value of the building is determined to be $970,000. The carrying value of the building is decreased by $27,500, with a loss on revaluation recognized in Year 3 net income.
2 Depreciation in Year 4 is $25,526 ($970,000 / 38 remaining years).
3 At December 31,Year 5, the fair value of the building is determined to be $950,000. The carrying value of the building is increased by $31,052. A recovery of loss on revaluation of $27,500 is recognized in income and $3,552 ($31,052 – 27,500) is recorded as revaluation surplus in shareholders’ equity.

11. The answers to this exercise will depend upon the company and the three line items selected by the students to explain. If the number of students in class is small, each company can be assigned to a team of students, with responses to the requirements of the exercise presented in class.

CASE 1: Jardine Matheson Group (part 2)

Choice among Alternatives
Four areas in which IFRSs allow a choice among alternatives and Jardine’s selection among the choices:
• “Tangible fixed assets” are stated at valuation, as are “Investment properties” as allowed by IAS 16 and IAS 40, respectively.
• The cost of “Stocks and work in progress” is determined by the first-in, first-out method as allowed by IAS 2.
• “Borrowing costs” related to major development projects are capitalized until the asset is substantially completed. All other borrowing costs are expensed as incurred. IAS 23 allows this treatment for borrowing costs.
• “Actuarial gains and losses” on defined benefit pension plans are recognized in full in the year in which they occur, outside profit and loss, as is allowed by IAS 19 (amended 2004). (Note: this topic is covered in the Appendix to the chapter.)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *