THE EFFECT OF PROPOSITION IDENTIFYING EXERCISES ON RETENTION
ASTRO JULIDA HARAHAP
Dosen Tetap Akademi Teknologi Industri Immanuel Medan
The objectives of this study are to investigate whether retention intervals significantly affect students’ retention, whether proposition identifying exercises significantly affect students’ retention and whether both proposition identifying exercise and conventional exercise have an interaction on retention intervals. A quantitative approach in experimental design was carried out to collect the data of this study. The sample of this study in random cluster sampling technique with 80 students. The data were analyzed by means of statistical analysis by applying the two-way ANOVA. The result of testing the first hypotheses shows that the F observed is higher than the F-table (23.4>3.11) at the level (p= 0.01) and it means the first hypotheses alternative was accepted. Then the second hypothesis shows that the F-table (316.85>3.4) at the level (p=0.01), which means that the second alternative hypothesis was accepted, while the third hypotheses show that F-observed is lower than F-table (0.18<3.40) at the level (p=0.01). it means that the third alternative hypotheses was rejected. On the basis of testing the hypothesis, the research finding shows that; the fist retention intervals significantly affect students’ retention. Second, proposition identifying exercises significantly affect students’ retention. Third, both proposition identifying exercise and conventional exercise do not have any relation upon retention intervals. Based on the research findings, it is concluded that proposition identifying exercise enhances student’s retention of the content in reading comprehension, and retention intervals also affect student’ retention. However, both proposition identifying exercise and conventional exercise do not have any relation upon retention intervals.
Key Words: Proposition, Identifying, affect student’s
Reading is one of the language skills. Through reading learners can get much information which is considered knowledge of the world. The text that the learners read contains all sorts of information such as sciences and technology. The learners’ questions about their life and its meaning in a wider sense can be answered by reading the sources of information. In fact, reading has given the learners an opportunity to find out how much they know about their life in general.
Two studies on reading have been conducted. First, McNeil& D. John (1992), experts in the field, have discovered more and more facts about reading. The latest development in the research and development of reading shows that reading is basically an interaction between the reader and text he is reading. The reader reads the printed materials by using his linguistic knowledge about language units such as the orthography, syntax and semantics of the language. For instance, the reader has to be able to pronounce the words to make him familiar with the meanings. For example the word I and eye have similar pronunciation but different meaning. There is the interaction between the reader and the text. And the reader should know the background about the text. So the reader understand about the text. The meanings of words in the text demand the reader to process the information in relation to the knowledge of the world which is called the “schemata”.
Second, psycholinguistics experts ; Gleason & Ratner (1998), have found the top-down processing which is the making of predictions about the text based on prior experience or background knowledge and then checking the text for continuation or refutation of those predictions. The bottom-up processing is decoding individual linguistic units (e.g., phonemes, graphemes, words) and building textual meaning from the smallest units to the largest and then modifying pre existing background knowledge and current predictions on the basis of information encountered in the text.
The term comprehension is still another key word that implies the real target of reading. Whatever is read should be understood. Comprehension becomes a matter of how much information is stored up in the memory of the reader. A reader with high memory power may be said to understand more. It is difficult for a reader to comprehend a text without powerful memory. His brain can store trillions of pieces of information which can be arranged in the memory on the basis of what is most important. A reader is said to forget what he has read because of the decreasing memory power and inability to organize the information as such so that retrieval can be easily performed. The power to store up the information or retention must have an influence over the comprehension in interactive reading. Thus, the short term memory is responsible for storing up the information as soon as the reader begins to analyze the content of the text and the long-term memory enables him to remember the facts, opinions or interpretation of an author in the text for a long time. What is retained in the short-term memory should of course be filed up in the memory so that the information is not gone or lost in the memory system.
- Do retention intervals significantly affect students’ retention?
- Do proposition identifying exercises significantly affect the students’ retention?
- Is there any interaction effect between proposition identifying exercises and conventional exercises on retention intervals?
The Objective of the Study
Retention is the memory power of a reader to keep or remember information taken from a text through a reading process. It begins at the onset of reading which is the short-term memory and continues until all the information is packed up in the form of proposition in the long-term memory. The span of time from short-term memory. The proposition is a kind of gist that is stored in the memory.
In this study, they hypotheses are formulated as follows:
H :Retention intervals do not significantly affect students’ retention
H : Proposition identifying exercises do not significantly affect studets’ retention
H :There is no interaction beween proposition identifying exercise and conventional exercises on retention intervals.
H : Retention intervals significantly affect students’ retention
H:Proposition identifying exercises significantly affect students’ retention
H :There is an interaction between proposition identifying exercise and conventional exercises on retention intervals.
Review Of Literature
The term “proposition” is familiar in some sciences such as linguistics, philosophy and logic. It is related to what is generally called the basic unit of meaning in a sentence or summary which can be derived from a text. Proposition is understood as the main idea of what is expressed in a sentence or text.
“Proposition is broadly defined as “a component of the underlying representation of a sentence, a basic unit of meaning; each proposition consists of a propositional function plus one or more fully specified arguments” (Clark and Clark, 1977; 565)
Clark and Clark (1977:47) give a clear explanation on the meaning of proposition at a sentence level. A proposition is different from a sentence. Whereas the sentence John walks is something the reader can pronounce, the proposition walk (John) is not.
In reading a sentence, the reader may first parse the sentence by applying the IC (Immediate Constituents) so that the proposition is discovered. Constituents are phrases or sub-phrases in the surface structure of the sentence. More precisely, a constituent is a group of words that can be replaced by a single word without a change in function and without doing violence to the rest of the sentence. The replacement need not have the same meaning. The old man is a constituent because it can be replaced by Amos, George or he without altering the structure of the rest of the sentence. Thus, the sentence the old man lit his awful cigar will be broken down into constituents as follows: the sentence is divided into two immediate constituents, the old man and lit his awful cigar. These in turn each divide into two immediate constituents and so on. At the bottom are the ultimate constituents the, old, man, lit, his, awful and cigar.
From these single constituents can be drawn or constructed the most underlying propositions as follows:
Constituents underlying proposition
Old man Man (E57), Old (E57)
The Old man Known (E57)
Awful Cigar Cigar (E8),Awful(E8)
The old man lit his awful cigar Light57,E8)
In these propositions, the arbitrary choice of 57 and 8 (The number in brackets) shows that these numbers have no meaning in themselves (Clark & Cark) 1977: 47
Because old man is a constituent there must be an entity E57 that is both a man and old. It is man that old, not cigar or something else. With the old man, this old man, E57, must be known to the reader. Similarly, from awful cigar adds two more propositions, but the second, Belong (E8,X) has an argument that cannot be filled form the constituent alone. In fact, is could refer, not to the old man, but to someone not even mentioned.
In a list of propositions, one proposition may be embedded in another by serving as an argument of it:
E.g. If Mary trusts John, she is a fool
In embedding, a whole proposition becomes an argument of a second proposition, whereas in subordination, propositions (with or without embedded propositions) from an ordered list in the text base. Embedded proposition involve relationships within the sentence, whereas subordination deals with relationships within the sentence but also beyond it. It should be clear that embedding allows propositional analysis to handle complex sentences with ease.
Horning (2006) further asserts that readers construct the list of propositions which represent the text’s meaning in the comprehension process, using the schema or blank outline, and the hierarchical ordering of sub and super ordinate propositions. As the reading proceeds, readers often need to reorganize the propositional list several times, as the schema is filled in, and the overall sense of the text becomes clear. (http:///www.google.co.id,2006)
Theory in Horning (2006) represents the meaning of a text at three levels: a micro-level of sentences, a macro- level of discourse level of analysis, propositional analysis yields an ordered list of propositions, called a text base. In the text base, two interesting features of propositions become apparent. The first of these is the capacity for embedding.
Function of Proposition
A proposition is not necessarily as a sentence, it may be a phrase, a clause, a sentence, or a cluster of several sentences. Propositions as wholes have one of the three basic functions: they denote states, or events; they denote fact about states or events; or they qualify parts of other proposition (Clark and Clark, 1977:29).
A proposition can function to denote a state. This is called a state proposition such as in the sentence the book is Peter’s. A state proposition has two main parts, the topic and the comment. The topic is the concept being talked about and the comments consist of the thing or attribute being used to describe or identify the topic plus the state relation (Larson, 1984:194).
A proposition can function to denote an event. This is called an event Proposition. All event propositions consist of at least a central event concept and an additional Thing concept. The central Event concept may refer to an action, an experience, or a process. Actions would be such concepts as run, hit, eat, and swim. Experiences are concepts which refer to activities of the five senses or to cognitive psychological activities, as for example, smell, see, hear, think and covet. Processes always represent a change of (from one condition or state of being to another). For example, die, become, sour and freeze are processes. The following are examples of event Propositions:
Actions: The boys ran
John ate the food
Mary gave the book to Peter
Experiences: Mary knew little
The boys heard the whistle
John saw the cow.
Process: The milk soured
The dog dead
The ice melted
Types of Proposition Mudd and Sillars (1975:22) mention several types of proposition. The kind of proposition of fact is a statement which asserts the way something ought to be is called proposition of policy. The other kind the claims that something is, appears in two forms. The first of these is called a proposition of fact, and the other is a proposition of value.
A proposition of policy is a statement that identifies a course of action (a policy) and calls for its adoption. For examples:
- The student council should establish a system of fines for students who fail to remove their dishes in the cafeteria.
- The several states should adopt uniform divorce laws.
A proposition of fact is a statement which asserts that specified circumstances exist. For examples:
- There is a wide disparity among the divorce laws of several states.
- Peace will never come to the Mid-East.
A proposition of value is a statement expressing a judgment about the goodness, rightness, quality or merit of something. For example:
- Professional boxing is a brutal sport.
The American educational system is superior to the educational system of Europe.
Identifying Main Proposition
The main proposition in a text is central to the total meaning expressed in the text. Thus, it is the main idea which is represented by the most significant and meaningful sentence. This sentence that contains the main proposition may be located at beginning, middle or end of the text depending on rhetoric of the author. News features usually presents the main proposition at the beginning because a reader is expected to get it first when time is the main factor in acquiring information. It is the principle of journalistic writing that the first sentence is usually regarded as the main idea. The ensuing sentences are just to support the content of the first or main proposition.
The term “retention” is best defined in terms of psychological concept. Bootzin (1986:351) explains that retention is the process by which information is maintained in storage in the reader’s memory.
Every reader always attempts to understand what he reads. That is the main assumption in reading comprehension. The text which he reads may contain new information. The old information, that is, his background knowledge (schemata) is used to decipher the meaning of the new information. It is then a kind of interactive reading.
By the time the reader reads the text or any piece of printed information, his mind immediately records what is familiar or intelligible to him. All the information is kept in his memory. The short-term memory functions to store the information for a while before it is transferred or modified into the long-term memory. It is said that the reader remembers what he has read when he can get or retrieve what has been put in the memory.
Short-term memory is part of human memory. It functions to store up information as soon as the reader begins to read the text. Short-term memory is a temporary form of memory that lasts many seconds; it is also known as active memory or primary memory. The memories in short-term memory remain active as long as it is activated but if is distracted, the information will fade within a few seconds.
There are several uses of short-term memory:
1). It serves as a sort of temporary scratch pad, allowing the reader to retain intermediate results while he thinks and solves problems.
2). It holds whatever goals and plans he is following at the moment.
3). It maintains his current picture of the world around him, indicating that objects are out there and where they are located.
4). It keeps track of the topics and referents that have been recently mentioned in conversation (Bootzin, et al. 1986: 222)
Long-term memory is the extension of the short-term memory. It is not the opposite as in the meaning of the word “short” versus “long”. The word “long” refers to the time span for which the memory works to record all information derived from reading as a mental experience.
The long-term memory functions to store the information of any kind for an indefinite period of time. The total content of long-term memory encompasses a tremendous range of knowledge, ideas, images, skill, and feelings that have been gathered in the course of experience. All these information pieces are kept in the memory after making some transfer. If a reader recognizes certain information, he then records it in his long-term memory by constructing a kind of verbal description (McConnell, 1974: 456). For example, the event of taking a trip is registered in the long term memory in the form of verbal description.
Retention interval is defined as “retention interval inactivity” (Spear & Riccio, 1994:32). It indicates that there is no explicit practice occurs during this interval or between the retention and retrieval (testing). This interval faction as a span of time between retention and retrieval.
It is stated previously by Kendler (975:342) “Retention decreases as time interval after learning increase “and “time is not causal even though we may nominally refers to it as a source of forgetting” (Spears & Riccio, 1994: 32). Those statements are also supported by Kruger and Shepherd. Kruger (1929) in Spear & Riccio (1994) asked the subject to learn 12 nouns and tested the retention after various intervals (1,2,3,4,7,14, or 28 days). The result is retention decreased substantially as a function of test delay. Shepherd (1976) in Spear & Riccio ( 1994:32) also asked the subjects to recognize 600 pictures after various delays. The test result is the average of accuracy decrease only slightly after 3 or 7 days (93 and 92 percent correct) but it is decrease to 57 percent correct after interval of 4 months. It is a fact that those intervals function as a span of time between retention and retrieval.
Second, since there is no explicit practice during those intervals and time is only nominally a cause of forgetting. It is a fact that any various times could be selected as retention intervals for testing. To access the accurate data, retention test will be more acceptable if it is carried out several times in various intervals. Therefore, this research will perform three retention intervals in three times. The first retention test will be 10 minutes after reading, then 3 days and a week after the reading will be defined as the second, and the third retention intervals.
Memory can be measurement by using a formula. That formula is stated by (Spears & Riccio. 1994:18) to qualify memory, percent correct could be established by simply dividing the number correctly recalled or recognized by the total number possible and multiplying by 100 “ R X 100
Where : R = Percent Correct
= Number of correct Recall
Total Number Possible
In line with this research, the measurement is described in the following three phases;
The first Measurement
In order that the students are able to do the questions of this research, the sample are asked to read the next of 200-250 words for 15 minutes. Then providing the 10 minutes interval, they are free for doing nothing. After that, they are given an essay test in the form of writing. They are required to write down what they remember from the text that they have read before without being exposed to the text. This test material is aimed at describing the students’ retention on the content of reading comprehension after proposition identifying exercises. Then, the answer sheets will be collected and analyzed by using scales of writing content (Heaton, 1980:146).
Then, the score is multiplied by 100 (retention measurement formula stated above by Spear & Riccio: 1994)
The Second Measurement
After three days interval, without being exposed to the reading text material, the samples are asked to do the test as it is done in the first measurement. Then, the answer sheet is analyzed using the same formula as test 1 (the first measurement).
The Third Measurement
A week interval is used to gain the third retention score following the same technique as the second measurement. Those three measurements are displayed in Table 1. below
Table 1.Retention Interval Measurement
|No||Sample||Retention 1||Retention 2||Retention 3|
Recall and Recognition Test
Recall is defined as “ to bring back to mind” ; the ability to remember while Recognition is identification of some person or thing as having been known before or as being of a certain kind “ (Webster, 1996; 1119-1121) and Spear & Riccio (1994: 17) states that “Tests of recall (the essay tests) require the subject to generate or produce the response , while test of recognition (the multiple choice test) require the subject to identify the correct response from among those provided”. Since both recall and recognition are related to expression of memory in retrieving the incoming message, person or things, it is difficult to make clear cut definition between recall and recognition.
This study was carried out by applying quantitative approach with an experimental design, which tended to find out the effect of an independent variable on the dependent variable, to find out the effect of factors on dependent variables, and the interaction of two independent variables on factors on dependent variables respectively.
The two by three factorial designs was used with two treatment groups labeled A1 and A2 in which A2 functions as control group. The independent variable labeled B in which there are three factors in it (B1, B2 and B3). The retention measurement could be accessed through finding content of reading comprehension tests 1, 2, and 3. They were used to assess the effect of proposition identifying on retention. The design of the study is a factorial design which is summarized in Table 2.
Table 2. The two by three factorial design
|Independent Variable (A)||Retention Interval Measurement/ Dependent Variable (B)|
|10 Minutes||3 days||1 Week|
Notes: A1 is proposition Identifying Exercises, and A2 is Conventional Exercises
Table 2. shows the 2×3 factorial designs for measuring the effects of the groups of samples; samples within each three levels of retention interval measurement are randomly assigned to the two treatments. For the scores in the six cells represent the mean scores of the three levels of retention intervals of the reading comprehension test. In addition, to the six cell scores representing the various combinations of treatments and levels of retention interval, notice that there are six marginal mean scores; three for the columns and two for the rows. The marginal columns are for the three levels of retention interval and the two marginal rows are for the two treatments. This is refer to Ary (1975:255) who states that a factorial design is one in which two or more variables are manipulated simultaneously in order to study the independent effect of each variable on the dependent variable as well as the effect due to interactions among the several variables.
The Population and Sample
The population of this study was the third semester of Machine Technique major of Academy technology Immanuel Medan in 2008/2009. The total population was 4 classes. The sample was drawn using cluster sampling technique. To this occasion, the researcher chose two classes randomly from the population. Each class consists of 30 students. This referred to Ary (1979; 134) who states Unit chosen is not individual but a group of individual who are naturally together. Since four classes of third semester are truly together and similar in the respect of characteristics pertinent to the variables of study, they constitute a cluster. Therefore, two classes as sample were drawn randomly from the population with the cluster sampling technique.
The Instrument of Data Collection
An instrument is very useful in research because through the instrument the result of the research will be revealed. In this research the instrument used was rewriting test, as it will measure the retention of the students in the area of identifying proposition to comprehend the content of text for quantitative research. This test was implemented to the samples after reading a text in various intervals. Considering the students level of comprehension, the text was taken from the student’s book which is based on the 2004 curriculum and composed by Soegeng HS (2005). It is the text used by students of another school. The instrument used in “rewriting” test which aims at constructing propositions from the text they read before. This is referred to Horning (2006) who asserts “readers construct the list of propositions which represent the text meaning in the comprehension process” (http///www.gooole.co.id.2006).
Developing the Instrument
As it is previously mentioned, retention can be measured by recall, relearning and recognition (kindler 1975:21 & 219) and Spear &Riccio (1994:17) also state that the conventional examples of memory measurement can be tested briefly for general classes of tests such as recall and recognition. He also states that the examination might consist of essays or multiple choices as the other common types of memory examination. In connection to reading comprehension, as a post reading activity writing is an effective form of elaboration, contribution to both understanding and retention of text. Finally, writing is a vehicle for revealing aspects of reading comprehension that might not be apparent without binary construction……..writing is the active process of creating meaning (Mc. Neil 1992:186&187). Following those experts and considering the SMP students’ level of comprehension, the researcher develops a recall test in the form o rewriting after reading a text of students’ level of comprehension. This test aims at describing the students’ retention at comprehending content of text after proposition identifying exercises. To make it clear see chapter 2 (recall and recognition test).
Validity of Test.
In educational field, a researcher must inquire into the validity of the instrument used in a study. This is referred to Ary ( 1979 : 196) who says : validity refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure”. There were three types of validities, content validity, criterion- related validity and construct validity. In this research. Content validity was chosen as a validity of test measurement.
In this study, reliability functions as the consistency of the measurement. It refers to Ary (1975) who states that Reliability is the extent to which measuring device are consistent in measuring whatever it measure.” Therefore, the degree of consistency with which it measured whatever is measuring. There were four kinds of reliability: test-retest, equivalent forms, split-half and rationale equivalence. In this research test-retest was applied as a reliability of the test. In the test- retest, the test was administered to the same group of individuals on two occasions then correlates the paired scores.
There are three things to be done with regard to the computation of the reliability of the test, to do the computation in order to get the coefficient of reliability and to interpret or judge whether the coefficient is high, fair of low.
In this thesis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation was applied to obtain the reliability of the test and it was drawn below:
Where : r = Pearson r
X = the first-time test scores
Y = the second- time scores
∑ x = the sum of scores in X – distribution
∑ y = the sum of scores in Y – distribution
∑xy = the sum of product of paired X – and Y – scores
∑ = the sum of the squared scores in X – distribution
∑ = the sum of the squared scores in Y distribution
N = the number of paired X – and Y – scores (Ary 1979: 118)
The interpretation of Pearson r can be seen when the two variables (X and Y) are highly related in positive way in which the correlation between them approaches +1. When they are highly related in a negative way, the correlation approaches-o.
The estimation of the reliability (based on the pilot test) applying the above formula for rewriting test after reading was 0.9. The instrument that resulted from the pilot test was used to collect data.
The Procedure of Data Collection
In collecting the data, repeated test-taking was conducted in three intervals so there were 3 times of measurements after reading a text. Those measurements were done for each of the 3 intervals they are 10 minutes, 3 days and a week.
According to Heaton (1988:146). There are five criteria of scoring composition in United States. First, content which is scored 30, organization (20) vocabulary (20), language (25) and mechanics (5). The content criteria is rated as the following 30-37 (excellent to very good; knowledgeable – substantive –etc) 26-22 (good to average some knowledge of subjects – adequate range etc.), 21 – 17 (far to poor; limited knowledge of subject- little substance- etc), 21 – 17 (far to poor; limited knowledge of subject- little substance-etc) and 16-13 (very poor; does not show knowledge of subject – non substantive- etc.
The Data Analysis
The data that had been collected were analyzed by using statistics F- ration. And the technique that was used to test the hypotheses was constructed by means of two ways ANOVA. The statistic can be seen in Table 3 below.
Table 3. Summary of a two by three Multifactor
Analysis of Variance (Ary, 1979: 159)
|Source of variance||SS||Df||MS||F||Level of significance|
F = =
MSb = Mean square between group
MSw = Mean square within group
SSb = Sum of square between group
SSw = Sum of square within group
Dfb = degree of freedom between group
Dfw = degree of freedom within group
F = fraction
The Description of Data
This research was based on a quantitative research. A quantitative method was used to describe the effect of proposition identifying exercises on the students’ retention. Therefore, organizing research data was a fundamental step in this research. In the previous chapter, it has been discussed the samples of the study. The sample was consisted of 2 groups (80 students). The scores of the sample was gotten based on retention interval (10 minutes, 3 days and a week) after treatment. These data should be arranged into frequency distributions and presented them into graphic form.
The Distribution of Data
The distribution of data was described clearly, through the table of organized scores, frequency distribution and graphic systems.
A systematic arrangement of individual measure in the first interval (10 minutes) column, while the others interval columns (3 days and a week) were taken based on the samples’ scores. And the systematic arrangement is form the highest to the lowest is called a frequency distribution. A list of the individuals measure in column with the highest measure at the top, the next highest second from the top and continuing down until the lowest measures are used of this technique and recorded at the bottom of the column. The frequency distributions are necessary in this study. It was made to make it easy for the readers to understand the phenomena. The score of reading comprehension is taken out from the previous formula. Then the data distribution of Retention score of multiplying the score in table 4.1 to the retention measurement formula. Similarly, the same steps of distributing the score are done to the conventional Exercises (Group A2).
Testing the Hypotheses
On the basis of the data collected from the two group in three retention intervals, the conducting of an analysis of variance was divided into two components: (1) the variance between groups, that is the variability among the three groups of retention intervals means and (2) the variance within retention interval groups, or how the individual scores within each group vary around the mean of the group. The through the computing of the sum squares between groups (SSb), the sum of squares within groups (SSw), the degrees of freedom within groups (dfb), the degrees of (MSb) and the mean squares within groups (Msw) were also calculated. Finally the F observed (F obs) was computed.
Validity of Retention Test
In this research, content validity was established by a panel of experts that include two nine grade teachers of English and two lectures. The experts reviewed the test for the appropriateness in comprehension on content of text. Therefore, aspect and content can be presented in Table
Notes: C = Culture, IS = International Sport, WG-= World Geography, E = Entertainment, WP = World Population and MM = Mass Media. All of the topics of 2004 Curriculum require students to search content of text (e.g. finding explicit meaning of main idea, finding implicit meaning of main idea, etc). Therefore, culture © was selected as the topic of instrument, because it is one of the representative tests.
Reliability of Retention Test
The computation of reliability of the test score was carried out by means of Pearson Product Moment Formula and attached in the Appendix III. From the computation it shows that the value 0.9. Based on the value, the researcher concluded that the retention test is reliable.
Conclusion And Suggestions
Exercises described by research finding show that; first, proposition identifying exercises significantly affect student’s retention. Second, retention intervals also affect student’s retention. Third, both proposition identifying exercises and conventional exercises do not have any relations on retention intervals because both exercises shows that student’s retention scores tend to decrease on the longer intervals inactivity.
Based on the conclusions, it is suggested that; first, educators should consider proposition identifying exercises be included in reading practice. Second, to improve students’ retention on the content of text, students should be motivated to have a relearning because the closer or the nearer the interval to the learning activity the more the students retain the content of a text. Third, this research was conducted by applying quantitative approach. Therefore, it is valuable to conduct other different approach, design, etc for the purpose of further research.
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