PANCASILA IDEOLOGY INVESTMENT THROUGH STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT COMPETENCE ORIENTED LEARNING MODEL CIVIC EDUCATION
11 Maret University
Citizenship education (Civics) plays a role in providing the ability for critical thinking, rational, and creative in responding to the issue of citizenship based on the spirit of nationalism. Appreciation of Pancasila as the national ideology into a serious problem with the emergence of other ideologies that threaten the unity of the nation. This research was supported by a qualitative descriptive study and the development study in the second year. Data sources used were interviews with informants were selected by purposive sampling, supported by focus group discussions, observations, document analysis, and statistical data related. The validity of using triangulation of sources and methods, whereas the data analysis in the form of interactive analysis techniques. The results showed that potential threats ideology among students have two : internal and external threats. Internal threat to the ideology of Pancasila is student doubts because it was triggered by dissatisfaction with the state. External threats are the efforts of others in disseminating ideologies in various ways in order to erode nationalism.
Key words: Pancasila ideology, Citizenship Education, Learning of Counter Ideology
Citizenship education (Civics) in Higher Education has an important role in providing the ability for students to think critically, rationally, and creatively in order to respond to issues of citizenship on the basis of the national spirit. It thus, in line with the mission of civic education in Indonesia, developing students into citizens who have a passion and love for the country of nationality (Article 37 of Law No. 20 of 2003). Thus, citizenship education in Indonesia is the national education.
One charge of learning materials Civics education in Higher Education as nationality is Pancasila, as contained in the Director General of Higher Education Decree No. 43 / Dikti/Kep/2006. It can thus be accepted any way, because the Pancasila national ideology was subsequently appointed as the basic of state (Pranarka, 1985). The idea of nationality in the third sila Pancasila was originally a first principle presented by Ir. Soekarno dated June 1, 1945, the principle of nationalism (AB Kusuma, 2004). This indicates that the Pancasila contains principles and spirit of nationality.
Thus the acceptance and appreciation of Pancasila can be used to build a spirit of nationalism within Indonesian citizen. However, the appreciation of the Pancasila ideology becomes a serious problem today, along with the emergence of other ideologies that may threaten the unity of the nation. Iriyanto Widisuseno (2009) states, the phenomenon of post-reformation of the nation currently is characterized by the occurrence of values disorientation, distortion nationalism, the nation-state threats, and the lack of basic values (core values) life. Kalidjernih (2008) states there is a tendency of various individuals and groups filed their respective values after Pancasila is no longer a legitimate power. There is a religion that emphasizes value and non-secularism. There is filed human rights, traditions, particularism, modernism, liberalism, secularism, universalism, and cosmopolitanism.
On the other hand, radicalism among the young people into serious trouble because they do not make anymore loyal to the Republic of Indonesia. That can not be separated from the paradigm of civic education in Indonesia for over 30 years in the New Order era more emphasized on character building compliance official interpretation citizens against a political regime. Compliance regime citizens to interpretation (the government) is considered as a virtue or virtues citizens (civi virtues) that is attached to the mission of civic education at the time. This compliance on the one hand gave birth hypocrisy (hypocrisy) between discourse with civic action (civic action) are expected. Meanwhile, the size of the primacy of civic action as a result of earlier hypocrisy is more influenced by external factors, such as pressure and political and economic interests in public office, so the act of citizenship that expressed an individual tend to be false (Samsuri, 2010). These conditions it is possible to make the people do not appreciate the ideology of Pancasila, because without a logical approach to planting and because of weak learning model used.
Planting and appreciation of Pancasila ideology can be done through learning civics in college because Pancasila as one substance assessment. Planting Pancasila ideology through the typical learning models, in accordance with the appropriate nalaran in turn will bring variation models are increasingly learning to enrich the wealth of learning models that already exist so that learning becomes exciting and achieve high competence. Civics put through a learning model that fits the needs and challenges are expected to strengthen the values of Pancasila ideology as policy implementation Personality Development Course in Higher Education.
Regulations as the basis for the implementation of civics courses in college has existed, the Decree of the Director General of Higher Education. 43 / Dikti/Kep/2006 about Signs-Signage Implementation Course Personality Development in Higher Education. The existence of an overarching regulatory Civics courses in universities which inside contained Pancasila as one substance assessment. Until now the law still applies prior to the new regulations.
Based on the above description, then conducted research with the aim 1) to map potential threats Pancasila ideology and nationalism among the students 2) identify learning problems Civics, 3) determine the learning model that supports the planting Civics ideology Pancasila. Research for the first year are produced in the form of qualitative descriptive findings according to the problem being studied. Second year of study is planned in the form of development studies. This paper will present the results and findings obtained in the first year of research.
Potential Threats Pancasila ideology and nationalism in Student
Potential threats to Pancasila ideology and nationalism students, divided into two, namely the threat that comes from within (internal) and threats from outside (external).
Internal threat comes from within the students themselves, in the form of doubts about the ideology of Pancasila and the Homeland. This happens because there is no clash between the value they receive as knowledge with the realities on the ground, which is essentially in the form of grievances against the state because it is considered not to meet their expectations. Their hope is the welfare state should be able to give to each of its citizens and uphold the religious values they believe. In addition to doubts about the country, they also have the mistaken belief that the values are believed to be.
External threats in the form of a very intense efforts of other parties by utilizing the doubt and idealism in a way students are indoctrinated with radical ideas through a variety of modes. Modes include play groups and communities through affiliated student religious activities that use religion as a pretext. Based on data collected leaflets and the effort was aimed at eroding irresponsible nationalism and tried to change the ideology of Pancasila ideology of Islam in accordance with their interpretation. On the other hand that radical Islam is seen from the unit of analysis and the historical political economy, rooted in the existence of gaps in Indonesian society (Ahmad Rizki, 2010).
In addition to the potential threat, also found the potential for student support for Pancasila and the idea of nationalism. Actually, support for Pancasila ideology and nationalism is still strong in most students. Internal support in the form of an established belief in the values of external support in the form of religion and the role of religious leaders as well as parents who always accompany them avert unilateral interpretation of a group of people who are not responsible and try to influence them. The lack of support is obtained through the study of Pancasila and Civics education, because they feel that the learning model used is indoktrinatif lecturers as well as more emphasis on civic knowledge.
Learning Problems in Citizenship Education
Citizenship Education learning problems in college can be identified as follows:
- Increasing the number of classes (regular program, non-regular / self-financing and diploma). This causes not only a lecturer teaching one class, but some classes, and in turn makes learning ineffective.
- Dearth of qualified faculty. Suit the requirements of the competent teaching Citizenship Education courses are graduate Suscados, graduate in Law, graduate in National Resilience and Citizenship Education. Because of the relatively large number of classroom teachers who meet these qualifications are not enough so that administer other lecturers that are considered relevant. This condition makes the course less controlled substance by pengampunya.
- Regeneration lecturer less programmed. Retirement age of lecturers are not followed by the appointment of new faculty, especially in the year 2012 there was a moratorium on the appointment of civil servants, so that universities be careful in this regard. In addition, many universities tingggi not have its own faculty for Personality Development Course, making it difficult for the management and development.
- Models or methods of teaching faculty is monotonous. Learning model performed relatively monotonous lecturer, dominated by lectures and discussions, but still put Pancasila indoktrinatif learning methods. This makes the students feel they have a strong argument for believing Pancasila as the national ideology.
- Academic culture or attitude of students towards subjects which tend to underestimate Civics. Classic problems faced by the common learning courses is student apathy, general courses they feel are not important and less support skills, thus making them skeptical
- Mid-Semester Exam assessment types, End Semester Examination, Exam Core competencies are not fully gauge what will be measured. Assessment should be tailored to the competencies to be achieved, if the form of civic competence knowledge means using the test, but if the civic disposition using scale civic attitudes and skills when using the observation sheet. In reality lecturer assessment has not been fully implemented appropriately. More professors use essay writing test for the cognitive domain.
Strategy Development Competency Model-Oriented Learning Citizenship Education
Formulation of development strategies oriented learning model Civics competencies can be explained that based on the findings in the field need a model that fosters the attitude of believing ideology Pancasila and the Republic of Indonesia, which allows students to actively and rationally in criticizing phenomena in society, and as a whole existing learning design should be consistent up to the judgment. The model in question is counter-ideology model of learning. To develop a learning model based on the counter-ideological constructivism learning theory and findings in the field-oriented.
The steps of the model is distinctive:
- Rational explanation of the ideology of Pancasila
- Criticize the ideology that developed in the community of reason (radical leftist ideology, right-liberal ideology, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic non-mainstream)
- Determine the appropriate attitude toward ideology for Indonesia
- Evaluating student confidence to the ideology of Pancasila and the Republic of Indonesia
- To reflect on the learning outcomes of the Pancasila ideology and nationalism.
Development of the model stems from the Competency Standards Citizenship Education courses, and then elaborated to the Competency Standards, Basic Competence, Indicators, Teaching Materials, and the steps the model in question appeared in the planned learning activities prior to the lesson plan.
If seen then competency Competency Standards Civics courses are to be scientists and professionals who have a sense of nationalism and patriotism; democratic civilized; become citizens who are competitive; disciplined, and actively participate in building a peaceful life based on the value system of Pancasila . The Competency Standards if not scrutinized using measurable verbs operational, because the right is showing attitudes and behaviors, and then lowered to Basic Competence, Indicators, and materials.
Related to the development of counter-ideology model of learning can be chosen substance civics studies on national identity, which if developed competency standard reads: develop an attitude supportive of national identity, and competence is basically; explaining the nature of Indonesian national identity; constructing national identity empowerment; construct revitalizing Pancasila as the manifestation national identity; analyze the embodiment of national identity; showing attitudes support the revitalization of Pancasila as a manifestation of national identity.
Speaking as a model of the mode can not be separated with the content of learning materials. For that content or material he taught can be structured as follows: The nature of national identity; empowerment efforts of national identity; revitalizing Pancasila as a manifestation of national identity; leftist ideology (radical, anti neolib issue), post-reform ideology, the ideology of the right (Islamic fundamentalist, Salafi); religion and state; ideological struggle; practice of Pancasila ideology; development of de-radicalization; embodiment of national identity.
The design of the learning steps of the model con ideology is structured as follows;
|Facilitate student readiness
Providing motivation toward learning materials is national identity
|Preparing yourself physically and psychologically
Focus to learning materials
|Explanation Pancasila as one of national identity and its function as ideology through impressions
Provision of information on various ideas / alternative ideology through the impressions of news media
Facilitate students to argue
Guide to determine a positive attitude toward ideology Pancasila Listening and review material
|Listening and reviewing material
In group, listened and argued for assessing various alternatives ideologyPresenting insights, attitudes and assessment of the current ideology of Pancasila
|Gives evaluation of attitudes related to the material, can be done by self-assessment or attitude scale
Guide students to reflect Evaluating learning
|To evaluate the learning
To reflect on the learning experience
Thus, the principal contribution of thinking about learning model as an effort to counter ideological continuously develop rational Pancasila and Civics responsibility through learning in higher education. Planting ideology Pancasila ideology as efforts to deter threats can be developed to create a mode of learning model as well as the content material to strengthen the mode.
Based on the findings and discussion, it can be argued a number of conclusions. First, the potential threat to the Pancasila ideology and nationalism within students come from internal factors, ie, disappointment and conflict of values between what they receive as a knowledge of the fact in the implementation of state and external factors that solicitation of another party to doubt ideology of Pancasila and so switched to other ideologies. Two, Learning Civics courses in order to develop a national spirit which encountered some problems Civics class sizes, lack of teachers, learning models monotonous, apathetic academic culture and the lack of proper assessment. Three, required learning model that is able to convince the students critically about Pancasila as an ideology and as well as national identity. Learning model is the model of learning offered counter-ideology.
Above three findings, it is suggested as follows. First, as a lecturer teaching civics is necessary to identify the knowledge, experience, beliefs and values when initial student division courses Civics, Civics lessons that can be based on student needs and prior knowledge. Two, there needs to be a concerted effort and systematic of relevant stakeholders in order to optimize learning Civics as personality development courses. Three, learning models have been tested on a counter ideology civics class so that it can be seen ketercapaiannya level.
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