1. The Nature of Genre

The term genre refers to particular text types with their communicative purposes, schematic structures and certain linguistics characteristic. Every genre has a number of characteristics that distinguish it one from another.[1] Three of them characterize all genre types in English text. However, every genre has different purpose, schematic structure and certain linguistics characteristic. Genre of the text is partly determined by the culture in which the text it used. Derewianka (cited in Rahayu) states that “Different cultures achieve particular purpose in the text through language in different ways”.[2]  It means that the text differs not only in term of their purpose but also in the particular situation in which they are being used. The examples of English writing genres are recount, descriptive, discussion, procedure and narrative.

To differentiate one genre from the other, the students can analyze them through the purpose, schematic structure and certain linguistic characteristic. In short, each English writing genre could be characterized from its purpose as summarized as follows.[3] Recount genre aims to tell the readers what happened in the past through sequence of event (Orientation-Events-Evaluation). Meanwhile, the aim of descriptive text is to describe a particular things or person (Identification-Description). The purpose of Discussion is to present information and opinions about some issue or events from several point of view (Title-Issue-Argument-Elaboration-Argument-Elaboration-Conclusion) the aim of Procedure is to tell how to do something (Goal-Step in sequence) Narrative tries to amuse the readers (Orientation-Complication-Resolution) while analytical exposition text is to persuade the readers with writer’s opinion by showing a fact (Thesis-arguments-Reiteration). .

In studying a particular genre, the students examine similar features of that genre in terms of prototypical settings, characters, storylines, and themes, as well as shared literary techniques. Through examination, comparing and contrasting the features and components of English writing genres, the students could eliminate their confusion about the differences between two similar genres, such as between narrative and recount. One advantage of using a genre is that the students learn a larger literacy practice of making generalizations about similarities between different texts based on certain genre features.[4] The students need to have the opportunity to produce some writing text based on their study of genre text. They can produce their own story in some genre text forms. For example, they can produce some genre text after reading a book and listening teachers’ explanation. In studying genres, the students may then focus on techniques being employed to produce such texts. Then, in writing texts, they draw on their genre knowledge in providing feedback to each other’s texts.

Writing processes always deal with texts as the products. Feez, (2002: 4) states that creating texts requires making choices about the words that are used and how it can be put together. She also states that there are various kinds of texts called text type. According to Feez (2002: 85-86), the families of text type are:

1). Exchanges

a). Simple exchanges is relating to information and goods and services.

b). Complex or problematic exchanges

c). Casual conversation

2). Forms

a). Simple formatted texts

b). Complex formatted texts

3). Procedures

a). Instruction

b). Procedures

c). Protocols

4). Information Texts

a). Descriptions

b). Explanations

c). Reports

d). Directives

5). Story Texts

a). Narratives

b). Recounts

6). Persuasive Texts

a). Opinion texts

b). Exposition

c). Discussion

  1. Persuasive Text

Persuasion is an attempt to change attitudes, beliefs, or actions audience to achieve a goal. Persuasion can also be interpreted as an act of someone (communicator) to persuade and influence others (audience) in certain ways so that people are willing to do something as expected by people who do persuasion. In an organization, persuasive messages intended to sell the idea / ideas to others, suggested that more efficient operational procedures, collect a support for specific activities, and to ask for funds to finance a particular project.

And a kind of persuasive text is exposition. Exposition itself is a piece of the text that presents one of side an issue. The purpose of the exposition is to persuade the reader or listener by presenting one side of an argument that is the case or the case against.

The characteristic of Exposition such as; there is a thesis or introduction the topic and indicating the writers’ position. Second, argument or explaining the arguments to support the writers’ position and the last reiteration or restarting the writers’ position.

  1. Factors that CanAffectStudents’ Writing Ability

Many factors affect the ability to write. According to Sharif, et al (2006: 13) categorized two factors of external factors and internal factors. Factor such external support facilities are not yet available, in the form of limited means to write. Internal factors cover psychological factors and technical factors. Psychological factors include factors habit or experience owned. The more accustomed to writing the ability and quality of writing will the better. Other factors that were classified as psychological factors are a factor needs.

Technique factors include mastery of the concept and application of techniques writing. Concepts related theories owned limited writing someone helped influence. The second factor of the application of the concept of technical factors. Writing skills a lot to do with the ability to read it someone who wants to have better writing skills are required to have the ability to read.

[1] Patricia A.Richard and Marguriete Ann Snow, Academic Success for English Language Learners,

(New York: Pearson Education,Inc, 2005), p. 277

[2] Indah Muji Rahayu, The use of documentary portofolio assessment to measure the students’ growth

and accomlisment narrative writing, op.cit., p. 14

[3] Patricia A.Richard and Marguriete Ann Snow, Academic Success for English Language Learners,

op.cit., p. 282

[4] accessed on May 29th 2015