DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH LEARNING NATURAL SCIENCE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE BASED ON INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT SCHOOL IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BANDAR LAMPUNG
M. Thoha B.S. Jaya, Arwin Ahmad, Iskandar Syah, Riswandi, Suparman Arif
University of Lampung
The general objective of this research is to make learning the IPA and integrated IPS through the development of environmental education based on the quality management of the school. While the specific purpose is: (1) develop educational environment to create models of learning the IPA and Integrated IPS; (2) describe the effectiveness of product model learning IPA and IPS integrated into improving the quality of schools; (3) drafting environmental education development modules that can create a model of learning SCIENCE and SOCIAL SCIENCE based integrated quality management school. This research uses research methods development (Research and Development) developed by Borg and Gall. The research conducted were: (1) research and information gathering, (2) planning, (2) product development, (4) test products, (5) revision of the product, (6) field test products results revision, (7) revision of operational product (8) product distribution small scale. Summing up the results of the study; (1) theoretically module is based on the theory of constructivism, kognitivisme, and humanism and models of learning Hannah Arenndt, (2) on the technical level, this model of learning modules can give positive feedback to the learning process, and (3) the effectiveness of the module model pembelaran designed this can be seen from the results of the learning process and the high value of the results sheet observations and test results.
Key words ;environmental education, natural science and social science learning model of integrated school quality management.
Students at the Elementary School currently judged too much burdened with academic science or charge on each subject. This condition is possible will have an impact on the psychic burdens that must be shouldered by the students who are still in the developing stage. With these conditions will be difficult for the implementation process of quality learning, because it is not balanced between the load that must be shouldered by the psychic conditions of students.
After evaluating the conditions, the Ministry of education and culture change new curriculum at the elementary level which will commence in 2013/2014 lessons. On the curriculum changes will reduce the burden of academic content. The students would not be saddled with a charged subjects in science, but will be more honed in the formation of attitudes and basic sciences such as reading, writing and counting.
The Government is planning six compulsory subjects for SD, namely religion, civics and Citizenship (PPKn), Indonesian Language, mathematics, arts and culture, health and sports. Whereas the natural sciences (IPA) and the social sciences (IPS) will be integrated into other lessons. While The United Kingdom would be local content in each elementary school. Welcome these changes, specifically on the subjects of natural science and social science needed a new model that can accommodate the condition of schools and the integration plan. The need for learning it is possible to be created through the development of environmental education.
Environmental education can be conditioned, molded, or created to support the implementation of the study according to your needs and desires. The circumstances in the field shows that have characterized the diverse conditions, characteristics, and availability of infrastructure for supporting the implementation of the learning process. With these conditions, need to be developed the right educational environment to be able to carry out the process of learning science and social science. Every elementary school environmental education development needs to do to create a model of learning science and social science are integrated into other subjects.
The Learning Model will be developed in support of the educational environment that is conducive and representative at the school. In addition to the physical environment or support facilities and infrastructure, it also support culture that is conducive to academic and social environment of a good school. Academic culture that is conducive with the spirit of learning of teachers and students, discipline, healthy competition atmosphere, and appreciate every achievers. While a good school environment characterized by the relationships between students, teachers, and parents that are harmonious.
Conditioning of the environment education in schools can be cooperate with an effort improve the quality of the school as a whole. School enhancement efforts will be effective in carrying out the functions of management. Through the management functions will direct all its resources in the school to develop environmental education so that it will produce a model of learning. As for the problems that exist today in the city of Bandar Lampung primary school has not been a model of learning science and social science. Thus, this research aims to study and produce a model learning IPA and Integrated IPS.
Environmental education is where the educational process which is part of the social environment. Environmental education is divided into three: (1) family environment; environmental education first and foremost experienced by a child’s parents is not supernatural upholds, care for, protect, and educate children to grow and develop properly. (2) the school environment; the school is responsible for the education of children as long as they submitted to him. The basic responsibilities of school education include formal institutional responsibility, academic responsibility, and functional responsibility. (3) the environment community; the family and school environment. Environmental education is the environmental resources in schools are used as a tool in the process of education that affect and support the process of the achievement of learning objectives, both in support of physical, cultural, and social events so that learners can master the competencies required to effectively and efficiently.
The Learning Model is a systematic procedure in organizing the learning experience to achieve learning objectives. Models of learning as well as the conceptual framework which describes systematic procedures in organizing the learning experience to achieve specific learning objectives that serve as a guide for learning designers and teachers in planning and implementing a learning activity.
The Learning Model as the image/conception of how the learning is done, which includes: (1) rational or theories which base the model, (2) goals/ability within the model, (3) the pattern sequence of steps (Syntax) learning, (4) learning environment and system management is required in order for the purpose of learning achieved. The Learning Model, contain any approaches, strategies, methods, and techniques of learning, although it is not stated explicitly.
There are several features of the model of learning which are: 1. Rational logical teoritik compiled by the creator or developer. 2. the cornerstone of thought about what and how students learn. 3. conduct teaching required in order that the model can be implemented successfully. 4. learning environment necessary for learning objectives can be achieved.
According to Arends in Wasis dkk, (2002) there is no better study model of the learning model. Every model can be used according to the specification of objectives, underlying rationale, syntax, and the learning management system and environment settings are given. In the choose model analyzing the characteristics of learning objectives to be achieved, the material, students, learning environments (Tools, facilities, learning resources, and media studies), as well as the ability of teachers in environmental management and system settings.
The Concept of Integrated Science and Social Science Lessons.
IPA is defined as a set of well-structured knowledge of social interactions. Depdiknas (2006) that IPA related to how to find out about nature systematically, so that not only the mastery of the knowledge of facts, concepts, or principles but also is a process of discovery. The IPA is also an empirical science and discusses the facts and phenomena of nature. The facts and the nature makes the symptoms of learning IPA not only verbal but also factual.
The purpose of learning the IPA in the primary Curriculum according to KTSP (2006), Department of national education are: (1) obtaining the conviction of the greatness of God based on the existence, natural beauty, and the regularity of his creation, (2) develop a knowledge and understanding of SCIENCE concepts that are useful and can be applied in everyday life, (3) develop curiosity, positive attitude, and an awareness of the existence of a relationship of mutual influence between SCIENCE, environment, technology and the community, (4) develop a process to investigate the natural skills, solve problems, and make decisions, (5) raising awareness to participate in maintaining, preserving and conserving the natural environment and the arrangement as one of God’s creation, and (7) acquired the stock of knowledge, concepts, and skills in SCIENCE as the basis for continuing education to JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL or MTS.
The scope of study of the IPA in SD in General includes two aspects: first; scientific work includes investigations, communicating scientific activities, the development of creativity, problem-solving, attitude, and scientific value. Second; understanding of the concept, i.e. (1) living beings and the process of life, namely, humans, animals, plants and their interaction with the environment, and health. (2) objects or materials, properties and their uses include: solid, liquid, and gas. (3) energy and changes includes: style, sound, heat, light, electricity, magnetism, and light aircraft. (4) the Earth and the universe include: soil, Earth, solar system, and other heavenly bodies.
IPS SD learning will begin with an introduction of yourself, then your family, neighbor, neighborhood RT, RW, kelurahan/village, district, city/town, province, country, neighboring countries and the world.
In accordance with the characteristics of students and IPS SD, then ekspositori method will result in the student being passivity, and lower degrees of IPS into a boring rote learning. Teachers are being monopolized the role as a source of information, should improve its performance with a variety of learning methods, such as the present cooperative learning models, role playing, reading poems, books (novels), or newspaper/magazine/journal for students included in academic activities. Of course the teacher must draw their knowledge and training skills, so that he was able to present learning IPS SD with interest.
Quality Management School
The quality of being a measure for customers in fulfilling his wish. The specified size is in physical form, value, price and service. Levin and Rubin (1998: 513), quality is everything done and produced in good to meet customer expectations. Tampubolon (2001: 113), quality is a combination of the attributes of a product or service that shows his ability to meet the needs of the customer directly or indirectly, either the needs expressed and implied, the present and the future.
See definition above contains some elements of the quality equation, namely: (a) quality include efforts meet or exceed customer expectations; (b) quality includes product (goods and services), labor (human), processes and work environment; and (c) the quality of the ever-changing conditions (for example, what is the value of current quality may be judged less quality in the future).
Meanwhile, management according to Mondy and Premeaux (1993) is the process of getting things done through the efforts of other people. While the management function is a type of work activities that can be identified and distinguished from other work. There are four management functions, namely: (1) planning; (2) organizing; (3) influencing; and (4) controlling. Robbins and Coulter (1999) management is the process of coordinating and integrating work activities to be completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. Management functions is itself a work activity Manager in planning (planning), organized the (organizing), lead (leading), and control (controlling).
Judith in Syafaruddin (2002) explains that the school management including planning, organizing, implementing, and monitoring. The planning includes identification of problems and find solutions, including completion of the build process, which efective in the community, by delegation, consultation, and coordination which is a major task manager at the school. Next is a control with a variety of assessment tools. The supervision necessary for the implementation of curriculum and support curriculum (teachers, students, and facilities).
Thus the school is a quality management methods based on quality improvement of schools with applied management functions based on the availability of quantitative and qualitative data, and empowerment of all school resources to continuously improve the capacity and capability of the Organization to meet the needs of students, school and community.
This research uses research methods development (Research and Development). According to Borg and Gall (2003: 770), research development is research oriented to develop and validate the products used. Research development of procedures being performed is, as follows: (1)Research and information gathering (2) Planning (3) Initial product development (5) Revision of the product (7) Revision of operational Products (4) Test products (6) field test Products Results Revision (8) small scale Products Distribution
Based on the above, the research procedure consists of two stages. The first stage of the research; The research population consisted of ELEMENTARY SCHOOL teachers in the city of Bandar Lampung. Sample assignment with purposive sampling that can represent the condition of the elementary school in Taoyuan City as a whole. The sample was made for early tests as many as three (3) teachers, each master class III, IV, and V. as for the trial court, it takes a number 9 (nine) teachers from various PRIMARY SCHOOL in the town of Bandar Lampung.
Data collection techniques using question form, observation, interviews, and documentation. The type of data that will be collected is qualitative nature. Will then be analyzed by conducting the reduction of data, display data, and draw conclusions and verification, as well as will be analyzed by descriptive statistics. Based on the analysis of the first stage of the research data will result in the planning design of the product to be developed. The expected end products of this research are integrated learning model IPA and IPS for SD. However, before obtaining the final product needs to be done in advance development of school environment that can support implementation of integrated learning IPA and IPS. The first stage researchers are doing is planning a school environment that support for the implementation of the integrated learning IPA and IPS. The development of school environment refers to the needs required for the learning of SCIENCE and SOCIAL SCIENCE, such as learning resources, learning, media and so on. The next stage is to design models of integrated learning IPA and IPS in accordance with environmental education development results above.
Design of integrated learning model of IPA and IPS in SD mixing steps instructional design Dick Carey and Carey (2005) and the development of the Borg and Gall (2003).
The second stage of the research; model design of experiments to test the product that has been designed. A draft of the Model will be used in the study was quasi experimental or quasi-experimental model experiments. Product model of learning will be used in classroom learning at a PRIMARY SCHOOL in class III, IV, and V by involving 3 (three) of the subject.
The experimental design used was the one-group pre test post test-design. In this experiment, which tested is not a teacher as a subject of research, but students in the class who become the object of experimental model of integrated learning IPA and IPS. The result of the test in a preliminary research (pre research) on the preliminary research will serve as the initial test data. After use IPA and integrated learning model IPS do post-test to find out how far the acquisition after being given the treatment.
Control experiments and class grades will be made the learning process by using different learning models. Classroom experiments will use IPA and integrated learning model IPS according to the results of the development of environmental education in schools. While the control class implementing conventional classical learning. At the end of second grade learning will be given post-test to determine the effectiveness of learning on review of improved aspect of the results of the study.
research results and discussion
Research results and Discussion Phase I
Research And Information Collecting
Data analysis showed that 90% of the students do not understand learning IPA and IPS in integrative medicine by developing environmental education. Most teachers in the city of Bandar Lampung SDN or nearly 80% of teachers convey that they have yet to carry out the process of learning SCIENCE and SOCIAL SCIENCE is integrated with other subjects that are supported by the environmental education.
The above conditions, in accordance with the plan of Learning Program (RPP) used is not supported by the environment to organise the learning process. In addition, the location and condition of the school buildings including the design of the study room is still not optimal in implementing a learning-oriented enhancement of the school. On the basis of which it can be concluded that environmental education is the base of the quality of learning, physical environment, culture, environment and social environment has not yet reached the maximum level.
At this stage plan of the researchers do some plans that relate to the manufacture of the product in the form of guidelines for learning IPA and integrated IPS that can be used with attention to environmental education. These guidelines are developed in accordance with the conditions of factual and theoretical conditions required in the learning process-based environmental education development. In addition, there are several matters related to product guide model learning IPA and IPS based integrated learning environment develops, that is as follows.
*0 Describe the product modules which include important information about products and whether or not the products are made.
*1 Module created will be used as a guide/manual, and
*2 The statement of the purpose of the creation and development of learning modules.
Learning modules is a manual learning model based on the development of environmental education in accordance with the characteristics of each school. A guide for teachers in implementing learning IPA and IPS Integrated in each school in accordance with the educational environment of the school. Whereas, for the learners will gain a meaningful learning experience, knowledge, skills, and values when supported by an excellent learning process and implemented appropriately in accordance with the characteristics of the subject matter. In the development of the educational environment of the school refers to the exercise of management functions in an effort to improve the quality of the school as a whole.
Develop Preliminary Form of Product
Generally the initial product developed has four subject modules of learning the IPA and IPS integrated development environment with appropriate education. In more detail the modules developed consists of five chapters the study is a clue in the form of guidance on learning model of IPA and integrated IPS developed from environmental education-oriented school enhancement using cooperative learning approach.
Order of discussion of the module consists of part I introduction, part II the pre Implementation Planning Study, part III implementation of Resource-based learning, school environment, part IV Evaluates learning, and last part V covers.
This product after then tested to the expert curriculum and materials. Test content and structure of the curriculum material by experts is needed to produce the products according to the learning objectives. The test results are then recommended several improvements to be made, namely:
a. appropriateness of the material and relevance to the curriculum needs for 2013 b. material c. Clarity the material contains information present d. accuracy of information material and quality of school environment e. Material should contain facts, concepts, or principle, and also the process of discovery of f. clarity of evaluation questions.
Preliminary Field Testing
The initial product creation process has been completed with a record improvement in the form of advice on revision of some existing deficiencies. The product is then tested on a fifth grade SDN 2 Rajabasa consisting of 40 students. At the initial trial investigators deliver RPP, PPKn and IPS syllabus as well as descriptions of the learning model. As the learning process progresses, the means used is the projector LCD with additional media material is a video lesson that history and PPKn. the learning process is entirely done by the grade 5 teacher observed through sheets of observations by researchers during the process.
Main Product Revision
Some of the suggestions obtained good results from direct observation and question form is obtained at the time of trial the product will be made the basis for the process of the implementation of the revised test products. The revision was done on this aspect of the evaluation and the sharpness of the contents of the module to be used as a model of learning the IPA and integrated IPS-based environment.
Main Field Testing
On the process of product tests, researchers using the revised module with the help of a learning tool and a movie film audio visual material tailored to the learning. Once the process is in progress, in order to find data for product manufacturing, researchers use the question form which consists of 72 questions with item 3 categories i.e. categories of academic environment, physical environment, and socio-cultural environment.
The Data obtained showed the presence of an excess of other researchers from the learning process by using modules that have been created, on the other hand also indicates that for a learning environment should ideally that’s far from the crowds that can lead to noise, and the physical environment must meet minimum standards so that students have the opportunity to actualize the more potential they have. The physical environment is good by itself will give rise to a culture of academic discussion environment, the volume of visits to the library, the utilization of nature through observations will by itself can be realized.
Operasional Product Revision
This stage is the final stage in the process of product development. The Data obtained will be the basic consideration in making revisions to the product learning modules by developing environmental education so that the created model learning IPA and IPS based integrated quality management school. Based on the results of field tests on the now (main field testing), researchers get advice to repair the product modules that have been developed, among others, that need to be prepared, just my assesment tool for sharpening the material, and the utilization of an existing facility with optimal.
The resulting product, beginning from the process of creating and lengthy development and distributed to various schools to be used in the learning activities. The process of distributing products made in limited (small scale). Products provided free of charge to elementary schools which became the target of research. The school is a State primary school, 2 elementary school and Country Rajabasa 1 Kampung Baru Bandar Lampung.
Research results and Discussion phase II
This phase II study was conducted by applying the learning modules as the product development research into classroom learning. The learning process is carried out in the research stage II is in the form of product experimentation. On the process of learning today are designed in accordance with the experimental method, namely the existence of a class of treatment and control classes. 5th grade A as class 6 and class B experiments as a control class. Both classes use IPA and IPS Integrated Learning in accordance with the standard curriculum
On a class of experiments will be conducted the study using the IPA learning modules and Integrated IPS developed from quality management-based educational environment of the school. Learning in the classroom control is carried out using other learning materials in use in the learning activities in school. From the results of the study showed that the mean value of the gain/gain, experimental classes have a higher value of 0.65 with medium category when compared to the control class has namely 0.31 low category. While the fulfill criteria that belongs to the class of experiments is 85 with high category and grade control 67.5 medium category.
Products in the form of thematic learning modules integrated SCIENCE and SOCIAL SCIENCE subjects developed from Integrated environmental quality management school based education. Products developed from the accuracy of the content and relevance of the curriculum to the needs of 2013. The clarity of the material, it contains information present, accuracy of information content-based environment and the quality of schools, the material should contain facts, clarity of evaluation questions. On a more important level all the contents of the modules that have been developed with these images (visual) that facilitate and clarify the process of implementation of the learning.
Based on the results of research it can be concluded that the module was compiled based on the theory of constructivism, kognitivisme, and humanism and models of learning Hannah Arenndt. On a technical level, module learning IPA and Integrated IPS has been through several stages of creation so thoroughly tested in terms of the technical development of the learning module developed from environmental quality management school based education so that these modules can give positive feedback to the learning process. The modules are made can make learning in the study of NATURAL SCIENCE and SOCIAL SCIENCE subjects. Effectiveness of learning modules that are designed for this can be seen from the results of the learning process and the high value of the results sheet observations and test results.
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