COMPETENCE AND CIVIC EDUCATION IN GLOBALIZATION
University of Lampung
The dual impact of globalization era; impact of favorable and adverse impacts. Beneficial effect is to allow the widest possible cooperation to the foreign countries. But on the other hand, if we are not able to compete with them, because the human resources (HR) is weak, then the consequences will be detrimental to our nation. The knowledge-based globalization has given rise to a number of major trends that must be addressed by every individual, community, and nation, including the various countries. In order to respond to and manage a variety of major trends, the presence, position, function, and thus the role of the main competencies, critical, and strategic. Hermann (1972) is teroretik argued that “value is tought Neither nor cought, it is learned”, the process of education on the basis of a process of acculturation or enculturation to produce a civilized human being, including cultured.
Keywords: competence, civic education, globalization
The process of globalization is a process that integrates a series of global life through the internationalization of trade, and the internationalization of production and financial markets, the internationalization of commodity culture system supported by an increasingly sophisticated global telecommunications. So global interaction can be easily accessed or thanks to the development of communication technology is increasingly sophisticated.
Progress of globalization is mainly driven in part by information technology to develop so rapidly that enables access information without time and space limit. Globalization raises new challenges and problems to be solved.
In the era of globalization, human resource issues in the spotlight as well as the foundation for the company to continue to survive. Human resources is a major role in every activity of the company. Although the number of facilities, infrastructure and resources, without the support of the human resources activities of the company is not going to go well. Thus sumbe human is the key principal that must be considered in all their needs. Human resources will determine the success of the company’s activities. For that the competencies needed to achieve organizational goals of adequate human resources in boosting employee performance.
Indonesia is also not free from the effects of globalization, where science and technology has been growing very rapidly. This triggers a new challenge for Indonesia to face the educational institution entry opportunities and educators from outside the country. For it is certainly Indonesia must improve the quality of education, both in terms of improvement of facilities, management and human resources Indonesian nation itself so that Indonesia can compete and education are not left behind by other countries. Inclusion of various influences of globalization, especially with regard to education should be explored more in depth, the extent to which globalization is able to direct the development of education in Indonesia, whether for the better or vice versa.
Education is the only way to improve the quality of people, throughout the history of human civilization that education is the effort to develop advanced culture and civilization manusia.kemajuan kunon greek roman and Islamic nations due to the high attention of the leaders in the early Islamic world educations growing that the prisoners of war can be waived if teachers could be among the people.
Dominance of the global era has made the education providers are stuck in a feeling of uncertainty with the current education system. This is caused by the level of progress achieved in science and technology, especially information technology, beyond readiness educational institutions in designing curricula, methods and tools in order to produce graduates-owned graduates are entering an era characterized by the level of competition and changes so massive and fast. At present, the problems faced by educational institutions is not merely the relevance of content provided to the students with the needs of the world of work so that graduates are ready to enter the workforce, but education is also required to always look at the relevance dimension paedagogies-didaktif (among others: teaching techniques , curriculum, methods, and other places of learning) with global cultural trends.
Concentration of education for human resource development in the form of knowledge and skills will support the development ekonomi.negara-state like Japan, Singapore, Korea and Hongkong have focused human resource development as the primary basis for national economic development (Law et al, 1991). The above is evidenced in the development world report 1991 report, as quoted Hasibuan (1996), suggests there are three things that can determine the level of productivity of a society. Three things: education in a broad sense, openness and competition, as well as macro-economic stability. For this reason human resource investment in education becomes a very strategic thing to boost the growth of society.
How is the development in China? China has the national education goals for:
- To understand local chanes through the great changes brought about in China by the policy reform and opening up and socialist market economy lead by the CPC, and to understand that Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of the Three Represents are the guiding ideology in building socialism with Chinese caracteristics;
- To understand the Party’s basic line on the primary stage of socialism, the country’s basic economic and political system at the present stage, and the superiority of the socialist system in producing social wealth and benefiting the people
- To understand the objectives of building a well-off society in an all-round way and unbalanced social development so as to Strengthen the sense of mission of building socialist China;
- To understand the country’s achivements in science, technology and educational development, to know about the gap between China and developed countries, to understand the realistic meaning of implementing the strategy of promoting the progress of the country with science and technology;
- To know the conditions of the population, resources and environment, to understand the policies of family planning, environmental protection, rational utilization of resources, and to estabilish long-lasting sustainable development;
- To understand that development of such a united multiethnic country depends on all the people’s solidarity, cooperation, hard work, and common development, and to learn about the fine tradition of the Chinese nation and cary forward and cultivate the national spirit by one ‘ s own deeds, so as to promote socialist spiritual civilization and safeguard national solidarity Steadiness and ethics
- To understand the developmental trend of the contremporary world, to know the status and function of China in the world, to know the opportunities and chalengges facing China, to learn survival skils, to estabilish global concepts, to maintan world peace;
- To understand the common idela for all Chiness Nationalities and try to work hard in one ‘s career and make a contribution to society (Zhan Wansheng and Ning Wujie in S. Winataputra, 2012:123)
Meanwhile, China’s derivation of national education goals in the moral education curriculum is aimed at:
- Enhance their moral dispotsitions
- Help them form healthy psychological traits;
- Initiate their legal awareness
- Strengthen their sense of social responsibility and behavior
- Assist Them in the pursuitof higher ideological and ethical standards, observing over and above the basic code of conduct;
- And pigeonpea them in carrying forward the national spirit and fostering a common ideal for socialism with Chinese characteristics (Zhan Wansheng and Ning Wujie in S. Winataputra, 2012:124)
The Value Of Education As Civic Education Essence
Conceptual history of values education is an integral part of the educational process as a whole, because basically the ultimate goal of education as represented explicitly in RI Law No.20 of 2003 on National Education (article 3) is for the development of potential participants educators to be faithful and devoted man Almighty God, noble, healthy knowledgeable, creative, independent and be citizens of a democratic and responsible, substantive educational value inherent in all dimensions of the goal that focuses on the value of aqidah religion, religious values to social, physical and spiritual health value, scientific value, the value of creativity, values to independence, and democratic values are answered.
Deals with the basic concept of the value of education, Hermann (1972) argued that the teroretik “tought Neither value nor is cought, it is learned”, which means that the substance of value is not merely taught but was captured and further, in the sense of value captured digested, internalized , and standardized as an inherent part of the individual’s personal qualities through prosese belajar.yang keep in mind is that fact shows that the learning process does not occur in a free-society culture but in terms of the culture that we live in a society that lives berkebudayaan.oleh because it is indeed true that the process of education on the basis of a process of acculturation or enculturation to produce a civilized human being, including cultured.
In actual praxis background values education process has been going on in people’s lives in a variety of forms of tradition. This tradition can be in look from petatah-proverb customs, oral traditions turun-tumurun like a fairy tale, advice, symbols, such as the local arts, “kakawihan” upbraided pasundan and “unrequited rhyme” in tatar wither. Nevertheless worth noting that with such rapid development of information and communication technologies such as radio broadcasts, and television shows from channels with airtime that panjangdan internet network that serves a variety of information globally, today the traditional elements and instead was started invincible, for example, the tradition of fairy tales and the like that used to be done by the parents of the child or grandchild of nature increasingly shifted by cartoons or soap operas in the mass media. That is where the value of education to face the challenges of conceptual, instrumental, and operational.
However, it should be emphasized that both the intelligent and should be seen as a necessity, such as the position of the cours. It’s Reflecting on the current concept of intelligence, intelligence diaman not solely related to aspects of reason or intelektulitas or koknitif but encompasses all potential Individual as now we known in the conception of rational intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and spiritual intelligence. In the context of the conception of the concept of intelligent and well should be interpreted intelligent rational, emotional, social, and spiritual. However, development is imposible to do just education program. in the context of development thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy into the values and attitudes ketgori affective, which specifically consists of feelings and attitudes. Educational process that focuses perhatianpada the development of values and attitudes in the western world is known as “value education, affective education, moral education, character education” (Winataputra: 2001).
In theory, Lickona (1992) introduced the term – the term “value education, education for virtues” as the programs and processes that tujuannyaselain develop the mind, or according to the bloom to develop values and sikap.Lickona (1992) quoted the words of theodore roosevelt (former president of the USA) and Bill honing (supirintendent of public instruction, california) memebri foundation for the importance of education values in amerika. Based on Roseevelt, “educating the mind is not moral, equal to educate the public ugliness”, while hooning stated that “the pendulum has swung back romance of the idea that the view that all values are ancaman.tetapi civic educators have long followed the period of the madness, which ultimately led to the learners ethically illiterate.dua these quotations provide a foundation that educators in the western world have a belief that the value of education, ethics, morale is very important as one of the rides sosiopedagogis in ensuring the survival of the community, nation, and state.
Education Challenges In Era Of Globalization
The dual impact of globalization era; impact of favorable and adverse impacts. Beneficial effect is to allow the widest possible cooperation to the foreign countries. But on the other hand, if we are not able to compete with them, because the human resources (HR) is weak, then the consequences will be detrimental to our nation.
Therefore, our challenge in the future is to improve the competitiveness and competitive advantage in all sectors, both real and monetary sectors, relying on human resources, technology, and management without reducing the comparative advantage that has held our nation.
This is where education – including Islamic education – are required to present himself, if he is able to educate and produce students who are highly competitive (qualified) or even barren in the face of the onslaught of various advances the dynamics of globalization. Thus, globalization is a major challenge for education. In this context, Khaerudin Kurniawan (1999), detailing the educational challenges facing globalization horizon.
First, the challenge to increase the added value, which is how to improve national productivity and economic growth and equity, in order to maintain and enhance sustainable development (continuing development).
Second, the challenge to conduct a comprehensive research on the era of reform and transformation of the structure of society, from traditional-agrarian society to a modern-industrial society and information-communication, and how its implications for the improvement and development of the quality of human life.
Third, the challenge of global competition intensifies, namely improving the nation’s competitiveness in producing creative works that qualified as a result of thought, discovery and mastery of science, technology and art.
Fourth, the challenge to the emergence of new invasions and colonialism in the field of science and technology, which replaces the invasion and colonialism in the fields of politics and economics.
All of these challenges requires qualified human resources and competitive in these areas in a comprehensive and insightful comparative excellence, professional expertise, farsighted (visionary), self-confidence and high self-esteem and have adequate skills as needed market and bargaining power.
Capabilities that must be realized in the process of quality Islamic education, so as to produce graduates who are knowledgeable, professional and superior, which eventually can be idealized model for the benefit of the community, state and nation.
The next question, what should be done by the world Islamic education? To answer it, it seems we need to look at the framework of Islamic education in the context of nationalism. So that we can prepare a proper strategy to face such a challenge and an opportunity.
In terms of quantity, the growing amount of formal education learners Indonesia ranging from kindergarten to college level (PT) experienced significant progress.But the quality is still lagging far behind than other countries, both developed countries, and ASEAN member countries though.
Competence in Globalization
Based on the general theory of competence can be defined as a set of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that influence the performance of the role, actions, achievements and one’s work. There are five types of competencies, namely:
Motive; That is something that one has to think consistently or desire to perform an action. Example of someone who has the motivation to define the challenge for himself, and is responsible for achieving the challenge and held an improvement in its implementation.
Disposition; That physical characteristics that consistently responds to different situations and information. Example: a reaction to the time and is a good vantage point of a person’s innate competence fighter pilot.
Self-concept. That is a behavior, values, or images (image) one. Example: self-confidenceKnowledge. That is a specific information that one has to understand the information. Skills. The ability to perform physical or mental tasks. Example: A dentist has the physical ability to patch the teeth without damaging nerves.
An organization formed to achieve a common goal, but to achieve the goal effectively takes good management and the right. According to Robbins and Coultar in Wibowo (2007:2), states that management as a process for making the activity effectively and efficiently resolved through other people. Efficiency indicates the relationship between inputs and outputs by finding the minimum cost of resources, while effectively demonstrate the meaning of the achievement of goals that have been set previously. Understanding the above fact, the role of Human Resource Management in the organization not only administrative but rather more to the ability to develop the human resource potential
The knowledge-based globalization has given rise to a number of major trends that must be addressed by every individual, community, and nation, including the various countries. In order to respond to and manage a variety of major trends, the presence, position, function, and thus the role of the main competencies, critical, and strategic. Therefore, every individual, community, and the nation needs to have a minimum standard of competence or control that effectively expected to be used to respond to and manage the major trends of globalization. In order pengasaan minimum standards of competence, it is clear school education and play a very strategic function than partly responsible. Intended to provide a concise overview of the particulars that, conceptually this paper tries to explain the particulars (1) trends in the era of globalization, (2) the primacy of competence, and (3) the duties and responsibilities of school education.
Dryden and Vos (1999) saw 16 major trends that will shape our future. Tendency in question is (a) the development of almost instantaneous communication, (b) the emergence of a world without economic borders, (c) the occurrence of four major leap towards a single world economy [together], (d) the development of trade and learning via the internet, (e ) development of new community services, (f) the occurrence of a great union between the [global] and small [local], (g) the growing strength of a new era of fun and excitement, (h) the occurrence of a fundamental change in the form of labor, (i) the appearance of women as leaders, (j) the increasing number of recent discoveries about the brain are very impressive, (k) the strengthening of cultural nationalism, (l) the existence of a growing underclass, (m) the growing number of seniors or elderly, (n) of the explosion practices -self-autonomous, (o) the development of cooperative enterprises, and (p) the rise of the power and responsibility of the individual (individual victories). This tendency can be coupled with the increasing trend of fading fame and glory of cognitive intelligence (IQ) on the one hand and on the other hand more and more fame and glory waving emotional intelligence (EQ), spiritual intelligence (SQ), intelligence adversity (AQ), multiple intelligences ( MI), and or emotional-spiritual intelligence (ESQ). Indeed the main trends already looked strong symptoms now.
Now new competencies required by every person and organization in Indonesia because of the changes now going on fundamentally and massively in Indonesia and in the world. Fundamentally change massively in Indonesia and in the world. Proposed changes include (i) peruabahan type and nature of work, (ii) changes in the economic-monetary-business, (iii) socio-cultural changes, (iv) social change pilitik, and (v) changes in the economy and transportation in addition to (vi) ecological and climatological changes and (vii) peruabahan patterns of relationships and communication. For example, in the field of political and social changes in the form of the weakening role of the state in one hand, and the strengthening of civil society on the other side. Similarly, in the field of economy is a change in the form of the growing strength of the private sector on the one hand and on the other hand more and decrease the role of the state. Furthermore, in the field of relationships and communication is now a change in the direction of the relationship and communication networks form, no longer sequential. It all makes every person and organization can no longer rely on the role of the state (for example: a career in the civil service), but they have to rely on the role of the private sector (for example: a career independent workers). In the cashflow quadrant, Kiyosaki (2000) as to call a career as a civil servant (employee) is not likely to go forward, less prosperous, and is the worst choice than a career as a self-employed or a professional (self-employed), an independent entrepreneur (bussiness owner), and investors. This implies, the new range of competencies required and need to be mastered by many people and organizations to be able to respond to, anticipate, and follow up the changes
Globalization Develop Potential
Globalization is a term that has a relationship with increased interconnectedness and interdependence between nations and between people across the globe the world through trade, investment, travel, popular culture, and other forms of interaction to another so that the boundaries of a country to be biased. Globalization of markets and thus make the company grow beyond the boundaries of the state. Almost certain that economic policy will follow this trend and thus he became a policy with an international dimension. Coordination and international cooperation increasingly emphasized in the economic policy agenda. But still debated what areas should be considered for international coordination and to what extent the coordination range.
If the mandate to print qualified human resources to be able to compete in the global era, the most organ is revamping standardization of education personnel, in the most urgent thing is to standardize teacher again.
The issue of standardization of teachers is a major job that must be addressed sesegeranya, where the teacher should have a qualification standard, the standard of competence as a teacher, which is viewed in terms of the quality of their performance.
Paul Stoltz (2000) explains that there is new intelligence needed somebody in life and achieve success, the intelligence toughness (Adversity Quotient / AQ). Through this one’s intelligence in dealing with any difficult problem, he should be able to find a way out. HR should have a strong fighting spirit and strong in life and achieve success.
The next must-have HR on a global era is competence. Competence is a set of intelligent action, full of responsibility one has as a requirement to be able to carry out the duties in accordance with the field work. Competence in the global era is very overlooked, because in this era will bring forth a new world is a world that is open to a variety of positive and negative aspects. Open world means a competitive world, where all people have the same opportunities and chances for success. It means that the era of open world demands competent human resources, productive, able to work hard and compete with other nations.
Build quality human resources is not enough to rely on intelligence quotient (IQ) alone, need to be supported also by emotional intelligence (EQ) is based on the awareness of the real truth. Awareness is the real truth is entirely self-realization of the noble values are the values of the Deity. Religious education and teachings and personality is very important in this regard, while the cultural values and social norms as an equalizer in finding the real truth.
EQ far escaped the attention of most people, Patricia Paton (1997) mentions that most businesses consider EQ is a mild problem, the treatment should be given to the religious or family. In fact on the contrary, in the era of globalization, developing and leading business activities in order to face the challenges and pressures with emotional neglect means allowing and bringing the company into a weak position. Gina Agustian Ary (2001) describes the results of an IQ test, that most people who have high IQ showed poor performance on the job, while the IQs are actually very accomplished. Academic ability, grades, graduation predicate can not be a measure of how well a person works or how high after success to be achieved. Gina Ary Agustian even mentions that in a paper Cleland, 1973, “Testing for Competence” that a set of specific skills such as empathy, self-discipline, and the initiative will result in the successful and high-performing star. There are four cornerstone of emotional intelligence (EQ) can be used as the basis of a successful human being, namely: (1) character, (2) principles, (3) values, and (4) Paradigm.
Teacher Professionalism Enhancement Measures
Teacher Competency standardization in our country who are seriously implemented aims to:
- Teacher’s ability to formulate national map is intended for policy formulation and program development in particular an increase in teacher education personnel.
- Formulating map needs and improving the quality of teacher training as the basis for the implementation of improved competence, qualification, and training-training educational personnel in accordance with requirements.
- Qualified teachers foster creativity, innovative, skilled, independent, and Menggungjawab, which formed the basis for the improvement and development of the professional career education personnel.
Legislation which is used as a legal basis is the determination of Teacher Competency Standards:
- Law No. 20 Year 2003 on National Education System.
- Law No. 25 Year 2000 on National Development Program.
- Law No. 22 of 1999 on Regional Government (State Gazette of 1999 No. 60, Supplement to Statute Book No. 3839);
- Law No. 25 Year 2000 on National Development Program (Propenas) Year 2000-2004 (State Gazette of 2000 No. 206)
- Government Regulation No. 38 Year 1992 on Workforce Education (State Gazette of 1992 No. 68, Supplement to Statute Book No. 3484) as amended by Government Regulation No. 39 of 2000 (State Gazette of 2000 No. 91, Supplement to Statute Book No. 3974)
- Government Regulation No. 25 Year 2000 on the authority of the Government and the Provinces as Autonomous Regions (Statute Book of 2000 No. 54, Supplement to Statute Book No. 3952);
- Indonesian Government Regulation No. 38 Year 1992 on Workforce Education, as amended by Government Regulation No. 39 of 2000.
- Decree of the Minister of State for Administrative Reform No. 84/1993 on Teachers Functional and credit figures.
- Joint Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture and Head of Personnel Administration Agency Number: 0433/P/1993, No. 25 of 1993 on Guidelines for the Implementation of Functional Master and credit figures.
- Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 025/O/1995 on Technical Guidelines for Implementation of the Provisions of Functional Master and credit figures.
- Decree of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia No.: 031/O/2002 on the Organization and Administration of the Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education.
So to overcome various problems associated with the teacher, mentioned above, which would later result in low quality of education, has greatly supported the formal judicial.
So based on the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2005 on National Education Standards, teachers and standards is a major part of the scope of the National Education Sandard, and in order to ensure and control the quality of education will be one of them is a certification course to measure quality-related the scope of the resources in this case are the educators and education personnel, which ultimately aim to meet the demands of life locally, nationally and globally.
Urgency Of Competence & Teacher Certification Test
In line with the advancement of science and technology today, particularly in the field of information and communication, has made the world feel increasingly become narrow and transparent. Between one part of the world with the rest of the world can easily be reached and viewed in a relatively short time.
That’s globalization, in which to bring a variety of complex and far-reaching implications for human life. Real implications of the globalization is globalizing the human perpacuan. An individual in the work are not only required to be able to take part and compete extent local and national level alone, but must be able to reach out further to the level of global competition, which is in that it contains a number of challenges and opportunities that are so tight.
At the same time, we are currently faced with the era of regional autonomy, which is a new paradigm of the system of government, which originally-centralized authoritarian towards democratic-decentralized. As a new paradigm, of course, will have a very broad implications also apply to the order of life. Issues will arise, both challenges and obstacles. With broad authority, the area should be able to empower themselves and encourage participation in community development activities, which in turn will actually be realized significant progress.
From here arises the question, how is that we can actually survive and exist in order to face the two challenges of the era. No other answers, the quality of human resources! Factor of human resources becomes very important because with just a touch of humans who have high intellectual abilities, skills that are reliable and of high moral standing, then the various issues that arise as a logical consequence of the globalization era and the era of highly believed otononomi area will be missed. Therefore, the movement of an effort to improve the quality of human resources should be committed all components. Through efforts to improve the quality of human resources is expected to create human beings who can be counted on to be the driving force of development in the area. Once too, can be counted on to be able to take part in the global arena.
In the fact, it must be recognized that the current level of quality of our human resources is very worrying, let alone to compete on a global level, to the ASEAN regional level, the position of the quality of human resources in the us.
In fact during this saangat felt in the management and development of the learning process is often a poor teacher creativity, and task performed better on the transmitter of what has been presented from the center in the form of guidelines and technical guidance, ranging from planning, implementation, and evaluation at all stages too, especially with the obligation to meet targets specific curriculum materials that often creates a feeling of stress, both teachers and students, thus forcing tiodak rare stuffing material to students, understand or do not understand what has been conveyed, not the main concern. Not to mention the obligation to make a variety of administrative tools that have been patterned by default and various kinds.
Besides the above issues, plus the fact could not be ascertained how many in our beloved country is predicated teacher as a professional teacher has not been established, but teachers are not professional concern will perform a variety of actions wrong in education, which according to DR. E. Mulyasa, M Ed, there are at least 7 common mistakes made teachers, as follows. :
- Take shortcuts in learning
- Students waiting for Behavioral Negative
- Using Destrukruktif Discipline
- Ignoring differences learners
- Feel most proficient
- Unfair (discriminatory)
- Force the rights of learners
Another problem is related to the well-being of teachers; wherein the functional benefits are very much lower in other professions, rank procedures are complicated, which is a levy that ultimately ends clearly not happen.
Accumulation of various problems faced by teachers widespread effects of the weakening performance of teachers. Teachers carry out tasks as mere routine, without the creative and innovative process, coupled with a variety of actions without realizing it was a mistake, which gave birth to the relationship between teacher and student that goes humanist.
The current global era, a fundamental change in the organization of the education system should be carried out, including the effort to put teacher education as the key to success. Therefore teachers are given greater autonomy in carrying out various duties, functions and obligations, Teachers should be encouraged to do more creative and innovative to find their own methods and new ways the most suitable and appropriate in the learning process, which is intended for the success of their students.
Likewise, weight assessment and awards to teachers should be emphasized on things more essential and that substantial extent can teachers effectively implement the learning process and how far teachers can develop a conducive learning interaction patterns. So, not just in terms of sheer administrative skills, but teachers are required to actually be able to perform its role in learning prroses appropriately.
DR. E. Mulyasa, M Ed, said there are 20 roles that should ideally be done by a professional teacher, namely as: (1) educators, (2) teacher, (3) supervisor, (4) supervisor, (5) Coach, (6). Advisor, (7). Innovators, (8). Models / examples / uswah, (9) Personal, (10) Research, (11) Creativity Booster, (12) Plant view, (13) Routine Workers, (14) Shifters tent, (15) Carrier Story, (16) Actor , (17) Emansipator, (18) Evaluator, (19) Preservatives, and (20) Kulminator.
Empowerment of teachers, both in terms of performance and well-being, to the creation of quality human resources will become a reality, which in turn will form human beings who can print human resources and insights that have able to compete in the global era.
Hence the Teacher Competency Standards Management Component parts for Educational Insights Learning and Development Profession & Components stated that: “Various issues related to teachers’ conditions, among others: (1) the diversity of skills of teachers in the learning process and the acquisition of knowledge, (2) the lack of accurate measurement tools to determine the ability of the teacher, (3) which do not reflect the development needs, and (4) inadequate teacher welfare. If it is not addressed, it will have an impact on the poor quality of education. “
So the basic problem to print the human resources that are able to compete in the global era, of course it goes back to how well they are doing it, namely the teachers. This means that the key issue is how to standardize skills / competencies of teachers so it is expected to perform the tasks mandated / required by local, national and even international in the global era.
Later teaching certificate awarded to teachers who have met the requirements, and conducted by the college that has a procurement program that is accredited educational staff and adopted by the Government, carried out in an objective, transparent, and accountable.
Teachers have a position as professionals in primary education, secondary education, and early childhood education in formal education are appointed in accordance with statutory regulations.
Position of teachers as professionals, serves to enhance the dignity and role of teachers as agents of learning functions to improve the quality of national education, aims to implement the national education system and achieve national education goals, the development potential of students to be human (1) faith and fear Almighty God, (2) morality, (3) healthy, (4) knowledgeable, (5) competent, (6) creativity, (7) independent, and (8) become citizens of a democratic and responsible.
Teacher profession is a specialized field of work carried out by the following principles: (1) have the talent, interest, call the soul, and idealism, (2) is committed to improving the quality of education, faith, piety, and moral values, (3) qualified academic and educational background in areas of assignment, (4) have the necessary competence in accordance with its assignment; (5) has the responsibility for the performance of duties of professionalism; (6) earn income determined in accordance with work performance; (7) has a chance to develop in a sustainable manner with the professionalism of lifelong learning; (8) have legal protection professionalism in carrying out the task, and (9) has a professional organization that has the authority to regulate matters relating to the duty teacher professionalism.
Empowerment of organized teaching profession through self-development is done in a democratic, equitable, non-discriminatory, and continuing to uphold human rights, religious values, cultural values, diversity of the nation, and a professional code of ethics.
Professionalism in carrying out the task, the teacher shall: (1) learning plan, implement quality learning process, as well as assessing and evaluating learning outcomes, (2) improve and develop the academic qualifications and competence on an ongoing basis in line with developments in science, technology, and art; (3) act in an objective and non-discriminatory on the basis of gender, religion, ethnicity, race, and certain physical conditions, or family background, and socioeconomic status of students in learning, (4) upholding the legislation, law , and the teachers’ code of ethics, and religious values and ethics, and (5) maintain and foster national unity.
So the recognition of the position of teachers as professionals is to be seen with a teacher’s certificate. Teacher’s certificate is a formal proof of the recognition given to teachers as professionals. Teacher’s certificate obtained through a process called teacher certification, but more than just a certificate, the performance standards and are permanent and kuntinyu of a teacher is the main thing over.
Globalization Avail To Education
Education is a field that will receive the impression or impact that continues from the era globalisiasi education because they are related to human resource development is highly influenced by persekitarannya (Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006).
If viewed from the perspective of education in the era globilisasi many good and bad impression which would be accepted by the state. Author police and royal base should first restructure the education system and strategies for dealing with the world before globalization. Here are some things that we need to give attention to avail of globalization on education:
- Competitive: this aspect of competitiveness among students if applicable in ranked again antarabangsa may include the quality of education and so foster a game adviser.
- His form relationships education resource and ease of investigation in the broader ranking. The state will provide a great benefit to the teaching and learning program.
- Merentasi cultural communication lebi h may cause students willing to face the labor market antarabangsa. This bermak na like language and communication skills that will be used more suggestive or pemiagaan antarabangsa trade.
- Consciousness about the importance of education in the world of globalization will lead to educators and students more willing menghasilk’s products and perkhidmatan which corresponds to the will or demand globally.
- Value of understanding between nation will increase effort understand universal human values, and this may cause the world to be safe.
- Increased number of private educational institutions favorable or otherwise?
- Technology deployment and intimation will seen trying to provide educational opportunities fully.
Duties and Responsibilities of School Education
Education schools, families, and companies have duties, functions, and primary responsibilities in shaping and strengthening the competencies. In this connection the presence, position, and function of education is very strategic and primary school education compared to families and companies. This means, the institutions in charge of school education and primary responsibility in carrying out the formation of competencies, rather than doing forwarding the material. All education institutions should be aware of the duties and responsibilities of the establishment of competence. Already the days where school educational institutions just do forwarding the material. Schools solely oriented on forwarding the material is outdated schools, contrary-minded schools and competence building is oriented school that will exist and relevant for the future. Or aspects associated with learning. For it is necessary to develop a competency-based curriculum which is then supported by a competency-based learning and competency-based assessment. In this relationship education (learning) and the school has a role to develop strategic and tactical as well as implementing a competency-based curriculum. Competency-based learning and competency-based assessment. Program structure, systematics program, program content, and materials in a competency-based curriculum programs need flexible, meaningful, and suited to the needs of globalization life hereafter, competency-based learning needs to take place is comfortable, fun, multisensory, each person’s competence can be shaped and developed optimal. The competency-based assessment needs to be done in an authentic, diverse, and comprehensive; unlimited tests in the classroom, but can the tasks and other activities outside the classroom.
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Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional