THE ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACT IN “AMERICAN SNIPER” MOVIE

Presented to STKIP PGRI JOMBANG
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (S.Pd)

By:
MISHBAHUL MUNIR
NIM. 1171074

SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
PERSATUAN GURU REPUBLIK INDONESIA
JOMBANG
2015

APPROVAL SHEET

THE ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS IN “AMERICAN SNIPER” MOVIE

By:
MISHBAHUL MUNIR
NIM. 1171074

Approved on: 1st December 2015

Advisor,

Afi Ni’amah, M.Pd

APPROVAL SHEET

THE ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACT IN
“AMERICAN SNIPER” MOVIE

By:

MISHBAHUL MUNIR
NIM. 1171074
This thesis was examined and accepted by board of examiners of
STKIP PGRI JOMBANG

Board of Examiners
Name Signature

Head of Examiner : Adib Darmawan, M.A ( )

Examiner I : Nanang Fitrianto, M.Pd ( )

Examiner II : Diana Mayasari, M.Pd ( )

Examiner III : Afi Ni’amah, M.Pd ( )

Jombang,

Acknowledged by:
Head of English Department

Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A
MOTTO

“Life is a game with obstacles encountered and when there is a chance, we have to seize it.”
“You will never know the true answer, before you try.”
By: Hitam Putih

DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to:
1. My beloved parents (Muzayyaroh) and (Sadaruan, S.Pd.I) who always support and pray the best for me.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I would like to praise to Allah SWT, The God Almighty who has been giving me some mercies and blessings so that I can finish my bachelor study by completing this thesis.
Secondly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to those who have helped me to accomplish this thesis. They are:
1. Dr. Winardi, S.H, M.Hum, as the chief of STKIP PGRI Jombang,
2. Drs. Adib Darmawan, M.A., as the head of English Department of STKIP PGRI Jombang.
3. Ida Setyawati, S.Pd., M.Pd., as the secretary of English Department of STKIP PGRI Jombang.
4. Afi Ni’amah, S.Pd., M.Pd., as my advisor who has guided, advised me, and shared her knowledge that I can accomplish this thesis.
5. All of the lecturers in STKIP PGRI Jombang, especially in English Department.
6. All of my friends in STKIP PGRI Jombang especially 2011-D Class who have given me support and accompany my days in campus.
The last, any critics and suggestions from the readers are hoped in order to improve this thesis as appropriately as possible.

Jombang, 1st December 2015

The Researcher

TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER i
APPROVAL SHEET ii
APPROVAL SHEET iii
MOTTO iv
DEDICATION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
TABLE OF CONTENT vii
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the study 1
B. Problem of the study 5
C. Objective of the Study 5
D. Significance of the Study 6
E. Scope and Limitation 7
F. Definition of Key Terms 7
CHAPTER II :REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Pragmatics 9
B. Context 11
C. Movie 14
D. Speech Act 14
E. Types of Illocutionary Acts 18
F. The Functions of Illocutionary Acts 19
G. Previous studies 20
H. Synopsis 22
I. Theoretical Framework 25

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD
A. Research Design 27
B. Source of data and data 28
C. Instrument of the study 28
D. Procedure of collecting data 29
E. Procedure of analyzing data 29

CHAPTER IV: FINDING AND DISCUSSION
A. Finding 32
B. Discussion 53

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion 58
B. Suggestion 59

BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES

ABSTRACT

Munir, Mishbahul. 2015. The Analysis of Illocutionary Acts in “American Sniper” Movie. Thesis. English Department of STKIP PGRI Jombang. Advisor: Afi Ni’amah, M.Pd.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Illocutionary Act, American Sniper Movie

This thesis discussed illocutionary acts in “American Sniper” movie. Illocutionary act is one of the elements of speech act which studies about speaker intended meaning in his or her utterance. There are five types of illocutionary acts, such as: assertive or representative, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative. Illocutionary acts can be found in movie. The researcher used “American Sniper” movie to find out the types of illocutionary act produced by main character (Chris Kyle). The researcher used theory of speech act especially illocutionary act to understand what the speaker means by saying the utterances in “American Sniper” movie. Based on the statement above, the researcher conducted research entitled “The Analysis of Illocutionary Acts in American Sniper Movie.”
The problems discussed in this research were the types of illocutionary acts used by the main character (Chris Kyle) and the functions of each utterance uttered by the main character in “American Sniper” movie.
This research used qualitative method because the researcher in this research described any information by gathering the utterances that were uttered by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie.
The result of the research discussion showed that there were four types of illocutionary acts used by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie. They were: assertive or representative, directive, commissive, and expressive. In this research, the researcher didn’t find declarative type in his utterances in “American Sniper” movie. In this research, there were four functions used by the main character. Those were competitive, convivial, collaborative, and conflictive.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher discusses Background of the study, Problem of the study, Objective of the study, Significance of the study, Scope and Limitation, and Definition of key terms.
A. Background of the study
Communication always occurs in the daily life of all human beings in the world because it is a part of life to communicate with others. Language is a tool of communication used by people to communicate and to express their feelings such as sad or happy, to express thoughts and ideas with others in order to get or to achieve what they want in their communication.
When we have conversation with others, we produce an utterance as type of action in the process of communication. That means language can be used by many people to express their activities such as requesting, ordering, thanking, promising, refusing, asserting, and treating. Those are called speech act. Speech act is the act of saying something. In our social life, we always communicate to share our intention to the hearer (addressee).
We usually make an utterance with intended meaning of what our words given. Meaning can be understood via context of what the speaker intention. Understanding the context will make us easy to catch the speaker means in his/her utterances. In daily communication, people do not only say something but also force someone (addressee) to do something for him/her. Thus, people should have the ability to interpret the meaning of speaker’s utterances in order that the communication can be reached.
To understand the speaker means, we have to consider it based on the context of the utterance. The study of speaker meaning is called pragmatics. Pragmatics is one of the branches of linguistics which is concerned with the study of meaning in context of the speaker utterance. Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (or reader). It has consequently, more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases and those utterances might mean by themselves (Yule, 1996:3). Furthermore, Griffiths (2006:132) defines that pragmatics is the study of how senders and addressees, in acts of communications, rely on context to elaborate on literal meaning. In addition, by studying pragmatics, we can talk about people’s intended meanings, their assumptions, their purposes or goals, and the kinds of actions that they are performing when they speak (Yule, 1996:4).
From the statement above, it can be understood that pragmatics is used to study about speaker meaning according to the context of the utterances and situation where it occurs. In pragmatics, we do not only interpret the meaning of a speaker to the single word or sentence but we have to interpret what the speaker means. There are many advantages that we can learn from pragmatics study such as: understanding meaning based on context of the speaker utterances, speakers assumptions, goals, etc. In pragmatics, we have to be able to interpret the speaker utterance in order to understand the actual meaning of speaker utterance.
Speech act is one of the branches of pragmatics because it has important role in the study of communication. Speech act has three types of acts such as, locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary act. All of them have different function in understanding speaker utterances. As stated by Austin (1962) in Meyer (2009) that when speaking (or writing, for that matter), we perform various “acts”: locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts. The difference between locutionary and illocutionary acts is sometimes referred to as, respectively, the difference between “saying” and “doing.”
Illocutionary act studies about nonliteral meaning of the speaker utterances. Based on Searle (1999, 145) in Wardhaugh said that illocutionary acts must be performed ‘intentionally.’ In order to communicate something in a language that will be understood by another speaker as an utterance it must be correctly uttered with its conventional meaning and satisfy in truth conditions. We have to perform illocutionary act with intended meaning as uttered by a speaker to the hearer based on the situation and real condition. We need more knowledge to interpret the speaker utterance which has intended meaning by studying illocutionary act. There are several kinds of illocutionary act based on Searle (1975) in Hughes and Gartsman (2007:117-118) states the classifications of illocutionary act; representatives, directives, commissives, expressives, and declaratives.
The researcher analyzes illocutionary act because most people still have misunderstanding when they have conversation with others. It occurs because of not knowing what is meant by the speaker utterance or sentence. In a communication, people use their way of speaking by certain means of the utterances expressed so, it is essential for them to know what the utterance means when it is delivered. When a sentence is said by a speaker, it does not refer to what actually means by the sentence but it has indeed meaning.
Film entitled “American Sniper” which had been released in 2014 is interesting to analyze because it tells a true story of the main character (Chris Kyle) who has been becoming the legend of sniper in US navy. Before going to the SEALs, he wants to be a cowboy as his father did. His father (Wayne Kyle) teaches him to shoot because Wayne Kyle wants him has the ability to shoot like him. Then, when he (Chris Kyle) is watching TV, he knows that the news said that there is a war in Iraq which has been killed more than 80 people dead and 1700 people injured. After knowing that accident, he goes to Armed Forces to join the SEALs. Then, he becomes one of the marines and is sent to Iraq to protect people there in order to save them from the War.
This movie has been nominated in MTV Movie Award in 2014 although it didn’t win the nomination. But this movie has won MTV Movie award in Video Editing category in 2014. The main character of the movie (Chris Kyle) won the best male performance category.
There are several researchers which have conducted the same fields of study on speech act before. In this research, the researcher does not discuss generally speech act study, but in a more specific study or illocutionary act will be the focus of this research. Therefore, the researcher conducts research entitled “The Analysis of Illocutionary Act in “American Sniper” Movie”. From the tittle, the researcher would like to analyze the utterances in the movie produced by the main character of the movie (Chris Kyle).
B. Problem of the study
Related to the background of the study above, the researcher formulates the problems of the study as follows:
1. What are the types of illocutionary acts used by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie?
2. What are the functions of each utterances expressed by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie?
C. Objective of the study
Based on the statement of the problem above, the researcher is going to analyze the following objectives:
1. To know the types of illocutionary acts used by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie.
2. To know the functions of each utterances expressed by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie.
D. Significance of the study
The researcher expects that the result of this research can give contribution for:
1. Theoretically
Giving some contributions to explore the knowledge of speech act theory especially illocutionary acts. The researcher hopes that the readers will understand about the theory of speech act especially illocutionary act when they read this research in order to get the additional knowledge of it.
2. Practically
The researcher hopes that this research can help the readers to understand the theories of speech act especially illocutionary acts. It can also be one of the references for the readers to study about the types of illocutionary acts and it can be used as an additional knowledge in pragmatics and other fields of linguistics. The result of this research can be used by the teacher in Teaching Language of English to teach the students about types of illocutionary acts. The result also can be used as one of the references and additional information for the next researchers.
E. Scope and Limitation
In this research, the researcher focuses on analyzing the utterances of illocutionary acts which are used in “American Sniper” movie. The researcher also limits the character that is Chris Kyle as the main character of the movie.
F. Definition of Key terms
1. Speech Act
Speech act is the basic units of linguistic interaction, such as give a warning to, greet, apply for, tell what, and confirm an appointment (Griffiths, 2006: 148). When we utter something to someone, our utterance also performs various acts such as requesting, asking, stating, offering, thanking, etc. For example, “Can you pass the salt for me?” it is included in requesting.
2. Illocutionary Act
The illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance (Yule, 1996:48). When people say to others, they actually do not only say but their utterances also perform an act. For example, “It is hot in this class.” (Speaker) and the statement means that the speaker wants the listener to turn the fan on or the speaker wants the listener to open the window.

3. American Sniper movie
American Sniper is one of action movies which had been released in 2014. This movie told about a man whose name is Chris Kyle. He lived in high disciplinary education of his father. Since a child, his father taught him to shoot as well as him (his father). His father was a cowboy and he wanted Chris to be a cowboy like him. Chris Kyle really wanted to be a cowboy but because of the condition of War in Iraq, he finally decided to join the Navy in order to protect people there. He worked hard to be the Navy until Chris became the US Navy. From the War, Chris became the legend of sniper in the history of US Navy and also in the world.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the researcher reviews the related theories as follows: Pragmatics, Context, Movie, Speech act, Types of Speech act, and Functions of illocutionary acts.
A. Pragmatics
When people hear an utterance, they do not only try to understand to the single word or sentence uttered but also try to understand the meaning of what the speaker said. To understand the meaning, the speaker needs to pay attention via context in order that the communication can run well.
Talking about language, we have known the two branches of linguistics which focus on the study of meaning. Those are pragmatics and semantics studies. Pragmatics refers to the study of meaning based on the context of situation or it can be said speaker meaning while semantics refers to the study of meaning based on the sentence or word meaning. Both of them refer to the relationship of meaning but in different side.
Pragmatics is the study of how senders and addressees, in acts of communications, rely on context to elaborate on literal meaning (Griffiths, 2006:132). Pragmatics focuses on the study of meaning and it is more deeply in the context of meaning or speaker’s actual meaning. We have to know the pragmatics itself to understand the meaning of something according to the context of situation. Every utterances of someone or person may have another meaning. We cannot decide what the speaker means literally because what he or she says may be different with his or her intended meaning of his or her utterances. We have to understand the context of the speaker’s saying. It is essential for us to study about meaning correlated with context of situation. Talking about context, we should have more knowledge to catch the speaker meaning or speaker’s utterance.
Fromkin (2003:173) in Siti Khafidloh (2013)
The study of linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences is called semantics. Subfields of semantics are lexical semantics, which is concerned with the meanings of the words, and the meaning relationships among words; and phrasal, or sentential semantics, which is concerned with the meaning of syntactic units larger than the word. The study of how contexts affects meaning – for example, how sentence ‘It’s cold in here’ comes to be interpreted as ‘Close the window’ in certain situations – is called pragmatics.

Pragmatics is about the use of language in context, where context includes both the linguistics and/or situational context of an utterance/ text sentence. It is appropriately stated by Fromkin et al. (2011:167) that pragmatics is concerned with our understanding of language in context. Communication clearly depends on not only recognizing the meaning of words in an utterance, but recognizing what speakers mean by their utterances. Pragmatics is the study of what speakers mean, or “speaker meaning” (Yule, 2010:127). When we speak with others, it is important for us to interpret the meaning and also understand what the speaker means in the communication. They do not only interpret a single word but also interpret what is meant by their utterances.
Yule stated in his book “Pragmatics” that pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms (1996: 4). It means that pragmatics focused on the linguistics forms of a speaker in which they are correlated each other. Furthermore, it is based on the speaker meaning and linguistics forms. Pragmatics emphasizes on the meaning of either word or sentence based on the speaker’s utterance and context of situation.
From the above statements, generally, definition of pragmatics cannot be separated from language and context. Thus, it can be concluded that pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning of an utterance based on context so that, the communication can run well. We have to realize that the ability of language is not only from the appropriateness of the grammatical rules but also from pragmatics rules.
B. Context
To understand what a speaker means, we have to consider it with its context. Context is the important part in understanding about pragmatic meaning because we can catch the actual meaning of a speaker when uttering an utterance which has intended meaning. By knowing the context, we can assume what is meant by speaker utterance and how the hearer interprets what a speaker means in order to understand the intended meaning of a speaker.
Leech (1983:13) defines that context is any background knowledge assumed to be shared by speaker and hearer and which contributes the hearer’s interpretation of what speaker means by a given utterance. Based on Mey (2001:41) states that context is about understanding what things are for; it is also what gives our utterances their true pragmatic meaning and allows them to be counted as true pragmatic acts.
From the definitions above, it can be concluded that context is the basic knowledge of what speaker and hearer have in their minds to understand the speaker utterance and the hearer can interpret what the speaker means in his or her utterance. In pragmatics, context determines what is said by a speaker and it does not refer to a single word or sentence but the speaker meaning.
According to Cutting (2002:3) stated that there are three sorts of contexts:
1. Situational context: the immediate physical copresence, the situation where the interaction is taking place at the moment of speaking.
Example:
A male lecture from London is explaining a mathematical problem to a male pupil from London, named Berkam:
Lecturer : Forty-nine? Why do you say forty-nine?
Pupil : Cos there’s another one here.
Lecturer : Right, we’ve got forty-nine there, haven’t we? But there’s two, okay? Now, what is it that we’ve got two of? Well, let me give you a clue. Erm, this here is forty, that’s four tens, four tens are forty.
2. Background knowledge context
The second type of context is that of assumed background knowledge. This can be either:
a. Cultural general knowledge that most people carry with them in their minds, about areas of life.
b. Interpersonal knowledge, specific and possibly private knowledge about the history of the speakers themselves.
Example:
Her : How are you?
Him : Ok
Her : Did you have friends in and get a video last night?
Him : Oh, I had friends in but we just watched a little TV.
Her : All right.
Him : That was great, How do you feel?
Her : Ok
3. Co-textual context
Co-text refers to the words or sentences surrounding any piece of written (or spoken) text (linguistic context).
Example:
a. The cheese sandwich is made with white bread.
b. The cheese sandwich left without paying.
C. Movie
Movie is a recording of moving images that tells a story and that people watch on a screen or television (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/movie)
Movie is a picture movement that has sequence events which tell a story and it is usually shown on television. People watch movie to entertain themselves. They can choose movie that they like such as sad movie, fun movie or horror movie. All kinds of movies have their own genres in entertaining people. People can feel comfort and glad when watching fun movie. People can feel sad or cry in their heart when watching sad movie. People can also feel very afraid when watching horror movie. What is told in a story of movie can make people to get more knowledge after watching movie that they are interested in.
D. Speech Acts
When people say something to others, they do not only say things. They perform an act by speaking. According to Yule (1996:47) says that in attempting to express themselves, people do not only produce utterances containing grammatical structures and words, they also perform actions via those utterances”. In communication, people do not only deliver utterances which have been structured but they also perform certain force in their utterances. Furthermore, he adds that actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts. Based on Mey (2001:95) states that speech acts are verbal actions happening in the world. Uttering speech act, the speakers do something with their words. The speaker performs an activity that brings about a change in the existing state of affairs.
From both definitions, the researcher concludes that speech act is an action which is done by the speaker with their utterances. When speaker utters speech act, it means that the speaker also does something with his or her words.
All utterances which are said by a speaker have meaning in its form. It also has certain function in human communication. Sometimes, people deliver utterances with intended meaning because what speaker says may be different with what is intended by a speaker in his or her utterance. It is important for us to be able to interpret what the speaker means in his or her words or sentences in order to get the aims in the communication.
In understanding the form of the utterances, we have known three forms of acts which are subdivision of speech act, such as locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act. The followings are the discussion of three types of acts which become the main core in human speech:

1. Locutionary act
Locutionary act is the basic act of producing a meaningful expression of an utterance. It deals with meaning of word or sentence which is appropriate in the dictionary and principle of syntax. The locutionary act is the act of saying something (Riemer, 2010:109).
From the definition above, the researcher concludes that locutionary act is the act of uttering something to the addressee literally or it can be said that the meaning of sentence is equal with what the speaker utterance without considering to the context. Thus, in pragmatic view, locutionary act has less important role in understanding speech act. For example, “You will get your hands blown off”. A speaker performs the locutionary act of stating that the hearer will get their hands blown off.
2. Illocutionary act
Most people sometimes deliver an utterance with intended meaning to the addressee (hearer). Illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance. Illocutionary act is an utterance with some kind of function in mind. Someone might utter to make a statement, an offer, an explanation, or for other communicative purpose. This is also generally known as the illocutionary force of the utterance (Yule, 1996:48).
Other definition from Hurford et al. (2007:273) said that the illocutionary act carried out by a speaker making an utterance is the act viewed in terms of the utterance’s significance within a conventional system of social interaction. One way to think about the illocutionary act is that it reflects the intention of the speaker in making the utterance in the first place. In addition, Riemer (2010: 109) explores that illocutionary act is the act that the speaker performs in saying something
From those definitions, it can be concluded that illocutionary act is the action of a speaker through the utterance which has an illocutionary force, i.e. “You will get your hands blown off” performs illocutionary act of warning. The utterance has illocutionary force of a warning, thanking, congratulating, and advising.
3. Perlocutionary act
It is the result of hearer’s interpretation of an utterance. When people are communicating, they also make certain effect via their utterances. Perlocutionary act is the act which is done by a speaker to produce an effect on the hearer’s interpretation by a given utterance. According to Hurford et al. (2007:271) states that the perlocutionary act carried out by a speaker making an utterance is the act of causing a certain effect on the hearer and others. In Riemer (2010: 109) defines perlocutionary act is the act of producing an effect in the hearer by means of the utterance. So, perlocutionary act is the effect on the addressee towards the speaker utterance.
From those definitions, it can be concluded that perlocutionary act is the effect on the addressee’s interpretation of the utterance. For example, “You will get your hands blown off”. The effect of the utterance is that the speaker may be to dissuade the hearer from playing with a lighter and a stick of dynamite, to frighten the hearer, to encourage them to go on provocatively waving a naked flame in front of a bag of fireworks.
E. Types of Illocutionary Acts
According to Searle, he classified illocutionary act into five types. Those are assertive, directive, commissive, expressive and declarative. Searle (1975) in Cruse (2002:342) has classified the types of illocutionary acts as follows:
1. Assertives
Assertives commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition: state, suggest, boast, complain, claim, report, warn (that).
2. Directives
Directives have the intention of eliciting some sort of action on the part of the hearer (get the addressee to do something towards what the speaker said): order, command, request, beg, beseech, advise (to), warn (to), recommend, ask, ask (to).
3. Commissives
Commissives commit the speaker to some future action: promise, vow, offer, undertake, contract, and threaten.
4. Expressives
Expressives make known the speaker’ psychological attitude to a presupposed state of affairs: thank, congratulate, condole, praise, blame, forgive, pardon.
5. Declaratives
Declaratives are said to bring about a change in reality: that is to say, the world is in some way no longer the same after they have been said. The point about these is, first, that they cause a change in the world over and above the fact that they have been carried out. The second point is that they standardly encode such changes: resign, dismiss, divorce (in Islam), christen, name, open (e.g. an exhibition), excommunicate, sentence (in court), consecrate, bid (at auction), declare (at cricket).
In this research, the researcher will give exploration types of illocutionary act according to Searle theory of speech act. Those classifications of illocutionary act are commissive, representative or assertive, directive, expressive, and declarative. They will be the focus of this research in understanding the type illocutionary acts.
F. The Function of Illocutionary Acts
Leech (1993:104) has proposed the illocutionary acts based on its functions. It is based on how illocutionary acts relate to the social goals or purposes of arranging and setting up in a polite ways. There are four types of illocutionary act functions such as, competitive, convivial, collaborative, and conflictive. The form types of illocutionary acts functions are described below:
1. Competitive aims at competing with the social purposes, such as ordering, asking, demanding, and begging. It is intended to produce some effects through action by the hearer. For example, “I ask your money, please” it is kind of asking.
2. Convivial aims in compliance with the social purposes, for instance offering, inviting, greeting, thanking and congratulating. For example, “Can I help you with this?” it is kind of offering.
3. Collaborative aims at ignoring the social purposes as like asserting, reporting, announcing, and instructing. It commits the speaker to the truth of expressed proposition. For example, “I like this book”. It is kind of reporting.
4. Conflictive aims at conflicting against the social purposes, such as threatening, accusing, and reprimanding. If you say again “I will say to your father”. It is kind of threatening.
G. Previous Studies
There are several studies which have been conducted previously by researchers. The previous studies have their own classifications in their research. In this research, the researcher explains each of the previous studies briefly as follows:
The first previous study was conducted by Wardani who graduated in 2011. Her study entitled “An Analysis of Illocutionary Act in Prince of Persia: The Sand of Time Movie”. In her study, she analyzed kinds of illocutionary acts used in Dastan’s utterances as the main character based on the contexts occurred in the Prince of Persia: The Sand of Time movie.
The second previous study was conducted by Faidhah who graduated in 2014. Her study entitled “The Analysis of Illocutionary Act of The Novel “Port Royal” by Linda Chaikin”. In her study, she analyzed kinds of utterances in all chapters taken from novel “Port Royal” by Linda Chaikin. She focused on the types of illocutionary acts used in the novel itself. She used descriptive research approach in her study.
The third previous study was conducted by Zumaroh who graduated in 2012. Her study entitled “The Analysis of Speech Act Used in “Air Force One” Movie Script”. In her study, she analyzed kinds of utterances in the dialogue taken from Air Force One movie script. Her focus of the study is in the kinds of speech act that are used in the movie script. She used descriptive qualitative in her study.
From the three previous studies which have been described above, the researcher conducts the similar research entitled “The Analysis of Illocutionary act in American Sniper Movie”. Those previous studies are used to help the researcher in giving general view for people about speech act. The researcher distinguished the similarities among three previous studies with the research conducted by the researcher. The first, the researcher used pragmatics approach to analyze the utterances. The second, the researcher analyzed types of illocutionary acts and this research has several differences among three previous studies. First, the researcher used American Sniper movie which is considered as action movie while three previous studies used novel, movie script, and the sand of time movie considered as dramatic movie as the object. Second, the researcher used the theory of illocutionary act by Searle in this research and those previous studies tended to use Austin’s theory of illocutionary act in analyzing the utterances.
H. Synopsis

This film tells the story from the childhood of Chris Kyle up to his tragic death. He was born of a simple family cowboy with a very high education discipline of his father who was a cowboy.
Since the beginning, Chris implanted protective properties to his brother who is often bullied at school. His father taught him to be a predator to protect the family. From there the character of Chris who had the instinct to protect evidenced after he joined the US Army despite including a little old time register themselves, i.e. at the age of 30 years. Exercise of the father who taught him to shoot the animals hunted in the jungle was very helpful in his career to become a sniper.
In Ramadi, Iraq, the city where he was assigned had made his name very well known and most casualties from the enemy. On the other hand, there are hundreds of US soldiers who he rescued from Al-Qaeda fighters who was under the command of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Wild state in Iraqi cities covered chaos into a hostile arena combat for US troops. Besides patriotists ready to confront, there also is no less accurate sniper Chris Kyle on the enemy side.
He is a recipient of a gold medal athlete Syrian sniper the sniper also succeeded in killing dozens or even dozens of US troops. Even Chris Kyle himself almost became a victim of his shot. Two friends of Kyle became victims shot, witnessed in front of his own eyes. The event that is spurred him to engage in retaliation. There is one point, the operation is devoted to search for the Syrian sniper hiding in high-rise building which is actually quite impossible to find. But by Chris Kyle actual shooting glasses according to his friends far beyond the reach of the shot, the shot smelling speculation proved successful sniper killing of the enemy.
Although it has the killing instinct is very high, but the humanist side Chris Kyle displayed on this film. He’s not a cold-blooded in real life. One time she had cheated by her boyfriend, but he did not kill his girlfriend affair. There was one when well when he had to shoot women and children who carry the mortar that will be thrown at a convoy of US troops, but with extreme caution, and he was forced to shoot them dead.
On one other occasion, Chris Kyle let go of a little boy who was about to direct the bazooka guns toward the US military. As a husband for Taya and father for her children, Chris is very responsible. But the patriotic spirit demonstrated higher than his role as head of the family. Chris Kyle was willing to leave his wife for the sake of duty of the state as much as 4x, 2x them when his wife during the pregnancy.
Although it has been sacrificed for the country, the life story of soldiers who have received various awards stars of this country are not comparable with the reciprocal she did. There are events in which her baby abandoned by hospital nurses. Even the tragic end of his life who died at the hands of a young veteran whose family wanted her help.

I. Theoretical Framework

Linguistics is the study of language. One of the branches of linguistics which study about meaning of language is pragmatics and semantics studies. Those terms focus on the study of meaning in language but in different side.

As stated by Griffiths (2006:1)
Semantics is the study of the “toolkit” for meaning: knowledge encoded in the vocabulary of the language and in its patterns for building more elaborate meanings, up to the level of sentence meanings. Pragmatics is concerned with the use of these tools in meaningful communication. Pragmatics is about the interaction of semantic knowledge with our knowledge of the world, taking into account contexts of use.

Semantics is the study about sentence meaning while pragmatics is the study about speaker meaning according to the context of the utterance. On the other hands, semantics is about to understand the meaning of a sentence which is elaborated literally. In semantics, we do not need to consider the meaning based on context of the speaker and addressee. Pragmatics studies about meaning in context of a speaker. Talking about context is very interesting because it can determine the actual meaning of a speaker on the hearer’s interpretation. Pragmatics meaning depends on the context of the speaker utterance.
In pragmatics, we have the terms speech act which understands about speech form of the speaker. There are three kinds of speech acts such as locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act.
This research aims at understanding illocutionary acts which are expressed by the main character in the movie entitled “American Sniper”. After finding the utterances which include in the types of illocutionary act, the researcher analyzes the utterances expressed by the main character based on the classifications of illocutionary act.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter, the researcher showed the way of conducting this research such as: Research design, Source of data and data, Instrument of the study, Procedure of collecting data, and Procedure of analyzing data.
A. Research Design
Research designs are the specific procedures involved in the research process: data collection, data analysis, and report writing (Creswell, 2012:20). It means that research design is procedures or steps which have important roles in the research process such as data collection, data analysis, and report writing.
In this research, the researcher used qualitative research method. Qualitative research method is defined as a research procedure which produces descriptive data in the form of words written or spoken of the person (Bogdan and Taylor 1975:5 in Moleong 2002:4). It can be said that qualitative research method is a procedure of research which results the data in words form and it does not form numerical as the result because the data will be in the form of descriptions or written form as the result of qualitative research.
The researcher used qualitative method because in this research, the researcher described any information by gathering the utterances that were uttered by the main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie.
This research also included in phenomenological research because in this research, the researcher found out phenomenon or utterances expressed by the main character included in the types of illocutionary act in “American Sniper” movie.
B. Source of data and data (object of study)
Mack (2005:3) states that the source of data is something that is obtained in the form of textual, such as: audiotapes, videotapes, film, and field notes. The source of data in this research used by the researcher was American Sniper movie because the data of this research were taken from the movie.
This research focused on illocutionary act used by the main character in the movie of “American Sniper”. Thus, the data of this research were taken from the utterances produced by main character (Chris Kyle) in “American Sniper” movie. In this research, the researcher’s object was the American movie entitled “American Sniper” which limited the utterances found in the movie itself. The utterances in the movie were the ones that included in the type of illocutionary acts.
C. Instrument of the study
The instrument of this research is essential to get the data. The main instrument of this research was the researcher himself. As stated by Bogdan (1975:29) qualitative research has the natural setting as the direct source of data and the researcher as the key instrument. From the statement above, the researcher concluded that the instrument of this research was the researcher himself as the major instrument in this research and had an important role to obtain the data. The researcher used this way because the data of this research was in the form of words. The researcher gathered and analyzed the data based on the collected data in accordance with the types of illocutionary acts.
The secondary instrument of this research was an observation beside human as key instrument in qualitative research because the researcher also used field notes to collect and analyze the data in American Sniper movie or Chris Kyle’s utterances in this case. As stated by Creswell (2009:181) said that qualitative observations are those in which the researcher takes field notes on the behavior and activities of individuals at the research site.
D. Procedure of collecting data
In collecting the data, the researcher has conducted several steps as the followings:
1. The researcher found out the movie and also the script of it by downloading from the internet.
2. After finding the movie and the script, the researcher watched American Sniper movie three times then analyzed the script of movie. The researcher concerned to Chris’s utterances.
3. Then the researcher found out and then took notes the utterances included in the type and the functions of illocutionary act expressed by Chris Kyle in American Sniper movie.
4. After getting all data needed, the researcher identified each of his utterances based on the theories of illocutionary act.
5. After identifying each of his utterances, the researcher classified the data which dealt with this research.
E. Procedure of analyzing data
Data analysis is the most complex and mysterious phase of qualitative research. Data analysis in qualitative research is a time-consuming and difficult process because typically the researcher faces massive amounts of field notes, interview transcripts, audio recordings, video data, reflections, or information from documents, all of which must be examined and interpreted. (Ary, 2010: 481). This research used field notes to analyze the data and needed much time and also hard process to interpret the collected data.
After collecting the data, the researcher continued analyzing the data which have been collected as the followings:
1. Reviewing
The first step, the researcher reviewed the data or utterances which have been collected from the movie expressed by the main character.

2. Identifying
The second step, the researcher identified the data based on the theories of illocutionary act according to Searle. He classified illocutionary act into five types such as: assertive/representative, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative.
3. Classifying
The third step, the researcher classified the data or the utterances which were included in the types of illocutionary act expressed by the main character into assertive/representative, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative.
4. Describing
The fourth step, the researcher described and analyzed the types and the functions of illocutionary acts found in Chris’ utterances.
5. Concluding
The last step, the researcher gave conclusion based on the analyses which have been conducted.

CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the researcher presents research findings of illocutionary act expressed by the main character (Chris Kyle). This chapter is divided into two sections. They are research finding and discussion. The finding is also divided into two parts. Those are the types of illocutionary act and the functions of illocutionary act.
A. Findings
1. The Types of Illocutionary Act
1) Assertives
a) Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more. (IA-1)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Taya asks Chris “Did you always want to be a soldier?” then Chris answers “I wanted to be a cowboy but I did that and I felt like I was meant for more”. In his utterance, Chris tells to her about what he has in his own. He said that he has become a cowboy and has the ability to shoot since he was child. He really wants to be a soldier.

b) Negative sir. There is something out there. (IA-2)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Chris tries to shoot towards the target, then PO Tosh asks him to close his eye but Chris says to him that there is something there. Thus, Chris doesn’t close his eye in order to shoot appropriately on target.
c) There was a kid who barely had any hair on his balls. Mother gives him a grenade. Sends him out there to kill Marines. Dude, that was evil like I never seen before. (IA-3)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris tells to Biggles that this kid is still a child but his mother gives him a grenade to kill Marines. They both are out of building and his mother is carrying a grenade in her cloth towards the Marines.
d) Uhn, fuck. They were clean, right? (IA-4)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” and it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition because Chris knows that those shots are off target so, he says, “And they were clean, right?”

e) I got six…well, that’s not true. I got eight…but they dragged two off. (IA-5)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris reports to Marc Lee that he has killed eight men but he only says six men because two of his guys are killed so, he counts his kills six.
f) It’s a boy! (IA-9)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. When Taya calls him, she tells Chris that he will have a son from her as what he expects at first.
g) Hey, some help here? My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying. Tend to her, please! Excuse me. Hey! Hey where you going? Hey! Hey, would you tend to my daughter, please? Hey! Hey, tend to my daughter, please! Right now! (IA-17)
When Chris at the hospital to visit his daughter, he knows that his daughter is crying but Chris cannot enter to the room so he only looks at his daughter from the door. Chris tries to call the nurse but she doesn’t care of him. Chris wants the nurse to tend to his daughter because she is crying loudly. This utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying.”
h) For what? What are you sorry for? It’s my fault we went on that roof. (IA-18)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Chris realizes that it is his fault so, Biggles doesn’t need to be sorry for. Chris feels very regret because Biggles got shot when he and Chris are at the top of the building to search the bad guys.
i) I’m right here, right here. Oh shit, you are blind as a bat. (IA-19)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because when Chris visits Biggles at the hospital, then he goes to the room where Biggles is taking care. Chris greets him and he replies Chris’ greeting. Then, Biggles is not able to see where Chris at and Chris answers that he is beside him. Chris is little bit sad because that shot makes his condition so bad. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “I’m right here, right here”
j) All clear. Set security. (IA-21)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive”. Chris tells to his guys that this building is clear and safety for hunting the bad guys. Chris and his guys are moving around in the building to make sure that this building is secure. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “all clear”.
k) Correction. It’s 2100 yards out. (IA-23)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. In his utterance, Chris is very confidence in his mind that he is able to shoot the man (the butcher) although it is a bit possible to shoot him in distance 2100 meters. He tries to believe in himself in order to make Biggles be proud to him (Chris).
l) He has eyes on our guys. (IA-24)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris reports that the man (the butcher) is still seeing around his guys and Chris can do well his mission to shoot the man down in order to do it for Biggles who died in the butcher’s hand. Other guys are surprised by him because he can make the man down.
m) Tango down (IA-25)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive”. Chris reports to his guys that our main enemy has been down. After Chris had an eye to the Butcher in distance 2100 yards, he tries to finish his mission to kill the man because the man had killed his several guys. Actually his mission is for Biggles who was dead after getting shot from the man. He kills the man for Biggles in order to make Biggles proud and glad. What Chris did was successful. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “tango down”
2) Directives
a) That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe.
(IA-6)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Taya asks to Chris “have you killed anyone yet?” and Chris answers “That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe”. Here, Chris tries not to answer Taya’s question because he doesn’t want his wife to be sorry about what Chris does.
b) Moving. Get down! Get down on the ground right now! Get your fucking ass down! (IA-8)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Chris and his guys are looking for the bad guys in house to house, they are still finding a family living in the house where the war occurs. They directly evacuate the family. Chris asks to his guys to get down the man (father) because he doesn’t want anyone to live in the war area. The utterance which indicates directive type is “Get down! Get down on the ground right now!”
c) Check. Came in at an angel. Be 300 or more yards out.
(IA-10)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “directive” because Chris orders Marc Lee to check as like there is a shot towards us and it kills the driver of the truck in the middle of the journey. Chris predicts that the shot came in from distance 300 or more out.
d) No, I don’t want you getting that in your head. (IA-12)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because it gets the hearer to do something. Although Taya says, “You’re not protecting me by not talking about it.” But Chris replies, “No, I don’t want you getting that in your head.” Because he doesn’t want her to worry about what Chris does now and he also wants her not to think so much about him. Chris doesn’t want to answer her question because he will be fine. The utterance which indicates directive type is “No, I don’t want you getting that in your head.”
e) Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now. (IA-15)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive”. It orders someone to do something (Chris Kyle : Well, don’t tell my wife, she might take that number right about now). Chris wants Col. Jones not to tell his wife that he is the most wanted man in Iraq and he doesn’t want his wife to call him. He also doesn’t want Taya to be sorry for. Then, Col. Jones understands that he will not tell his wife about what he does in order to hunt the Butcher and to protect the people there. The utterance which indicates directive type is “Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now.”
f) Pick it up off the floor. Off the floor. Make sure you get all of them up. Well, you got one back here. (IA-16)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because it gets someone to do something. This utterance means that Chris wants car reparatory to get down his car because he is still paying the payment to the receptionist in order to be able to go directly.
3) Commissives
a) Oh fuck this. I’m gonna go clear houses with Marines. (IA-7)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Commissive” because it commits the speaker to some future action. Here, Chris wants to join with his guys to clear the houses because at the top of the building, Chris is not able to see the target clearly. They are looking for the bad guys in the building.
b) We have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you. (IA-20)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Commissive” because When Chris visits him at the hospital where Biggles is taking care after he got shot in that building. Chris says to him, “we have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you”. This means that Chris promises to Biggles that he will find him and kill him for Biggles. Chris wants to make him glad after the accident.
4) Expressives
Expressives make known the speaker’ psychological attitude to a presupposed state of affairs: thank, congratulate, condole, praise, blame, forgive, pardon.
a) Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry (IA-11)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Taya is waiting for him in the airport. She feels very glad when meeting him again. When Taya asks to him, “I thought you were dead” then, Chris answers, “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry”. This utterance means that Chris feels very sorry to her because he has made Taya feel worried about what Chris is doing now. Chris also feels sorry to her because he is not at home when she needs him in her side. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry”
b) I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you. (IA-13)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Chris at the airport, he meets his brother (Jeff). Chris feels very glad and proud of his brother (Jeff). Although Jeff says, “I’m just tired, man. I’m going home.” Chris is still very proud to him because he can prove to his father that Jeff can be one of the soldiers. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you.”
c) Thank you, sir. (IA-14)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Chris is in the helicopter with Col. Jones and his guys, Chris expresses his gratitude to Col. Jones when Col. Jones says, “You made Chief. Congratulations.” Then, Chris answers, “Thank you, sir”. He is very confidence and very happy to be a chief in US Navy.
d) Shit. Shot came from the east! We set up in the wrong fucking direction. (IA-22)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “expressive”. After Chris has already set up his position, he knows that one of his guys is down after getting shot from the east. He also realizes that the shot came from the Butcher and Chris feels very disappointed that he has set up the wrong position. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “Shit!”
5) Declaratives
Declaratives are said to bring about a change in reality: that is to say, the world is in some way no longer the same after they have been said. The point about these is, first, that they cause a change in the world over and above the fact that they have been carried out. The second point is that they standardly encode such changes: resign, dismiss, divorce (in Islam), christen, name, open (e.g. an exhibition), excommunicate, sentence (in court), consecrate, bid (at auction), declare (at cricket). In this research, the researcher didn’t find any declarative types in his utterances (Chris Kyle).
2. The Functions of Illocutionary Act
1) Competitive
a) Moving. Get down! Get down on the ground right now! Get your fucking ass down! (IA-8)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Chris and his guys are looking for the bad guys in house to house, they are still finding a family living in the house where the war occurs. They directly evacuate the family. Chris asks to his guys to get down the man (father) because he doesn’t want anyone to live in the war area. The utterance which indicates directive type is “Get down! Get down on the ground right now!” This utterance includes in competitive function to make an effect on the hearer.
b) Check. Came in at an angel. Be 300 or more yards out.
(IA-10)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “directive” because Chris orders Marc Lee to check as like there is a shot towards us and it kills the driver of the truck in the middle of the journey. Chris predicts that the shot came in from distance 300 or more out. This utterance includes in competitive function in his utterance to make an effect on the hearer. It is kind of commanding.
c) No, I don’t want you getting that in your head. (IA-12)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because it gets the hearer to do something. Although Taya says, “You’re not protecting me by not talking about it.” But Chris replies, “No, I don’t want you getting that in your head.” Because he doesn’t want her to worry about what Chris does now and he also wants her not to think so much about him. Chris doesn’t want to answer her question because he will be fine. The utterance which indicates directive type is “No, I don’t want you getting that in your head.” This utterance includes in competitive function because it has the hearer to do something. It is kind of advising.
d) Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now. (IA-15)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive”. It orders someone to do something (Chris Kyle: Well, don’t tell my wife, she might take that number right about now). Chris wants Col. Jones not to tell his wife that he is the most wanted man in Iraq and he doesn’t want his wife to call him. He also doesn’t want Taya to be sorry for. Then, Col. Jones understands that he will not tell his wife about what he does in order to hunt the Butcher and to protect the people there. The utterance which indicates directive type is “Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now.” This utterance includes in competitive function because it has the hearer to do something. It is kind of commanding.
e) Pick it up off the floor. Off the floor. Make sure you get all of them up. Well, you got one back here. (IA-16)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because it gets someone to do something. This utterance means that Chris wants car reparatory to get down his car because he is still paying the payment to the receptionist in order to be able to go directly. This utterance includes in competitive function because it has the hearer to do something. It is kind of asking.
2) Convivial
a) Oh fuck this. I’m gonna go clear houses with Marines. (IA-7)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Commissive” because it commits the speaker to some future action. Here, Chris wants to join with his guys to clear the houses because at the top of the building, Chris is not able to see the target clearly. They are looking for the bad guys in the building. This utterance has convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose.
b) We have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you. (IA-20)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Commissive” because When Chris visits him at the hospital where Biggles is taking care after he got shot in that building. Chris says to him, “we have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you”. This means that Chris promises to Biggles that he will find him and kill him for Biggles. Chris wants to make him glad after the accident. This utterance has convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose.
c) Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry (IA-11)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Taya is waiting for him in the airport. She feels very glad when meeting him again. When Taya asks to him, “I thought you were dead” then, Chris answers, “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry”. This utterance means that Chris feels very sorry to her because he has made Taya feel worried about what Chris is doing now. Chris also feels sorry to her because he is not at home when she needs him in her side. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry” This utterance has convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose.
d) I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you. (IA-13)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Chris at the airport, he meets his brother (Jeff). Chris feels very glad and proud of his brother (Jeff). Although Jeff says, “I’m just tired, man. I’m going home.” Chris is still very proud to him because he can prove to his father that Jeff can be one of the soldiers. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you.” This utterance has convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose.
e) Thank you, sir. (IA-14)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Chris is in the helicopter with Col. Jones and his guys, Chris expresses his gratitude to Col. Jones when Col. Jones says, “You made Chief. Congratulations.” Then, Chris answers, “Thank you, sir”. He is very confidence and very happy to be a chief in US Navy. This utterance includes in convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose and it is kind of thanking.

f) Shit. Shot came from the east! We set up in the wrong fucking direction. (IA-22)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “expressive”. After Chris has already set up his position, he knows that one of his guys is down after getting shot from the east. He also realizes that the shot came from the Butcher and Chris feels very disappointed that he has set up the wrong position. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “Shit!” This utterance has convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose.
3) Collaborative
a) Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more. (IA-1)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Taya asks Chris “Did you always want to be a soldier?” then Chris answers “I wanted to be a cowboy but I did that and I felt like I was meant for more”. In his utterance, Chris tells to her about what he has in his own. He said that he has become a cowboy and has the ability to shoot since he was child. He really wants to be a soldier. This utterance has collaborative function because it announces the hearer about his ability in shot.
b) Negative sir. There is something out there. (IA-2)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Chris tries to shoot towards the target, then PO Tosh asks him to close his eye but Chris says to him that there is something there. Thus, Chris doesn’t close his eye in order to shoot appropriately on target. This utterance has collaborative function because it reports the hearer.
c) There was a kid who barely had any hair on his balls. Mother gives him a grenade. Sends him out there to kill Marines. Dude, that was evil like I never seen before. (IA-3)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris tells to Biggles that this kid is still a child but his mother gives him a grenade to kill Marines. They both are out of building and his mother is carrying a grenade in her cloth towards the Marines. This utterance includes in collaborative function because it reports the hearer.
d) Uhn, fuck. They were clean, right? (IA-4)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” and it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition because Chris knows that those shots are off target so, he says, “And they were clean, right?” it has collaborative function in his utterances.
e) I got six…well, that’s not true. I got eight…but they dragged two off. (IA-5)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris reports to Marc Lee that he has killed eight men but he only says six men because two of his guys are killed so, he counts his kills six. It has collaborative function in his utterance.
f) It’s a boy! (IA-9)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. When Taya calls him, she tells Chris that he will have a son from her as what he expects at first. It includes in collaborative function in his utterance.
g) Hey, some help here? My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying. Tend to her, please! Excuse me. Hey! Hey where you going? Hey! Hey, would you tend to my daughter, please? Hey! Hey, tend to my daughter, please! Right now! (IA-17)
When Chris at the hospital to visit his daughter, he knows that his daughter is crying but Chris cannot enter to the room so he only looks at his daughter from the door. Chris tries to call the nurse but she doesn’t care of him. Chris wants the nurse to tend to his daughter because she is crying loudly. This utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying.” This utterance includes in collaborative function because it is kind of instructing.
h) For what? What are you sorry for? It’s my fault we went on that roof. (IA-18)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Chris realizes that it is his fault so, Biggles doesn’t need to be sorry for. Chris feels very regret because Biggles got shot when he and Chris are at the top of the building to search the bad guys. This utterance includes in collaborative function because it is kind of asserting.
i) I’m right here, right here. Oh shit, you are blind as a bat. (IA-19)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because when Chris visits Biggles at the hospital, then he goes to the room where Biggles is taking care. Chris greets him and he replies Chris’ greeting. Then, Biggles is not able to see where Chris at and Chris answers that he is beside him. Chris is little bit sad because that shot makes his condition so bad. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “I’m right here, right here” This utterance includes in collaborative function.
j) All clear. Set security. (IA-21)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive”. Chris tells to his guys that this building is clear and safety for hunting the bad guys. Chris and his guys are moving around in the building to make sure that this building is secure. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “all clear”. This utterance has collaborative function because it aims at ignoring the social purpose.
k) Correction. It’s 2100 yards out. (IA-23)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. In his utterance, Chris is very confidence in his mind that he is able to shoot the man (the butcher) although it is a bit possible to shoot him in distance 2100 meters. He tries to believe in himself in order to make Biggles be proud to him (Chris). This utterance has collaborative function because it aims at ignoring the social purpose.

l) He has eyes on our guys. (IA-24)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, Chris reports that the man (the butcher) is still seeing around his guys and Chris can do well his mission to shoot the man down in order to do it for Biggles who died in the butcher’s hand. Other guys are surprised by him because he can make the man down. This utterance has collaborative function because it aims at ignoring the social purpose.
m) Tango down (IA-25)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive”. Chris reports to his guys that our main enemy has been down. After Chris had an eye to the Butcher in distance 2100 yards, he tries to finish his mission to kill the man because the man had killed his several guys. Actually his mission is for Biggles who was dead after getting shot from the man. He kills the man for Biggles in order to make Biggles proud and glad. What Chris did was successful. The utterance which indicates assertive type is “tango down” This utterance has collaborative function because it aims at ignoring the social purpose.

4) Conflictive
a) That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe.
(IA-6)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Taya asks to Chris “have you killed anyone yet?” and Chris answers “That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe”. Here, Chris tries not to answer Taya’s question because he doesn’t want his wife to be sorry about what Chris does. It includes in conflictive function because it aims at conflicting with the social purpose.
B. Discussion
The researcher discussed the types of illocutionary act and also the functions of each types expressed by the main character (Chris Kyle) in American Sniper movie. The researcher used Searle’s theory of illocutionary act explained by Cruse (2000:342) that he divided the types of illocutionary act in five types such as: assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative. The result of this research shows that there were four types of illocutionary act used by the main character (Chris Kyle). They were assertives, directives, commissives, and expressives. The researcher used Searle’s theory to analyze his utterances included in illocutionary act types. The followings are brief explanation of each type:
1. Assertives
Assertives commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition: state, suggest, boast, complain, claim, report, warn (that).
Example: You should go to the doctor soon.
The example shows that the speaker suggests the addressee to go to the doctor soon to check his or her bad condition. This utterance includes in assertive type because it is such kind of suggesting.
The utterance which is included in assertive type expressed by the main character is:
Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more. (IA-1)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Taya asks Chris “Did you always want to be a soldier?” then Chris answers “I wanted to be a cowboy but I did that and I felt like I was meant for more”. In his utterance, Chris tells to her about what he has in his own. He said that he has become a cowboy and has the ability to shoot since he was child. He really wants to be a soldier.
2. Directives
Directives have the intention of eliciting some sort of action on the part of the hearer (get the addressee to do something towards what the speaker said): order, command, request, beg, beseech, advise (to), warn (to), recommend, ask, ask (to).

That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe.
(IA-6)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Taya asks to Chris “have you killed anyone yet?” and Chris answers “That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe”. Here, Chris tries not to answer Taya’s question because he doesn’t want his wife to be sorry about what Chris does.
3. Commissives
Commissives commit the speaker to some future action: promise, vow, offer, undertake, contract, and threaten.
Oh fuck this. I’m gonna go clear houses with Marines. (IA-7)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Commissive” because it commits the speaker to some future action. Here, Chris wants to join with his guys to clear the houses because at the top of the building, Chris is not able to see the target clearly. They are looking for the bad guys in the building.
4. Expressives
Expressives make known the speaker’ psychological attitude to a presupposed state of affairs: thank, congratulate, condole, praise, blame, forgive, pardon.
Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry (IA-11)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Taya is waiting for him in the airport. She feels very glad when meeting him again. When Taya asks to him, “I thought you were dead” then, Chris answers, “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry”. This utterance means that Chris feels very sorry to her because he has made Taya feel worried about what Chris is doing now. Chris also feels sorry to her because he is not at home when she needs him in her side. The utterance which indicates expressive type is “Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry”
In this research, there were four functions of illocutionary act used by the main character. Those were competitive, convivial, collaborative, and conflictive. To know the functions, the researcher used Leech’s theory (1993:104) proposed illocutionary act according to its functions in social purposes.
1. Competitive aims at competing with the social purposes, such as ordering, asking, demanding, and begging. It is intended to produce some effects through action by the hearer.
Moving. Get down! Get down on the ground right now! Get your fucking ass down! (IA-8)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Chris and his guys are looking for the bad guys in house to house, they are still finding a family living in the house where the war occurs. They directly evacuate the family. Chris asks to his guys to get down the man (father) because he doesn’t want anyone to live in the war area. The utterance which indicates directive type is “Get down! Get down on the ground right now!” This utterance includes in competitive function to make an effect on the hearer.
2. Convivial aims in compliance with the social purposes, for instance offering, inviting, greeting, thanking and congratulating.
Here is the utterance which has convivial function:
Thank you, sir. (IA-14)
The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Expressive” because when Chris is in the helicopter with Col. Jones and his guys, Chris expresses his gratitude to Col. Jones when Col. Jones says, “You made Chief. Congratulations.” Then, Chris answers, “Thank you, sir”. He is very confidence and very happy to be a chief in US Navy. This utterance includes in convivial function because it aims in compliance with the social purpose and it is kind of thanking.
3. Collaborative aims at ignoring the social purposes as like asserting, reporting, announcing, and instructing. It commits the speaker to the truth of expressed proposition. Here is the utterance which has collaborative function:
Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more. (IA-1)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Assertive” because it commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Here, when Taya asks Chris “Did you always want to be a soldier?” then Chris answers “I wanted to be a cowboy but I did that and I felt like I was meant for more”. In his utterance, Chris tells to her about what he has in his own. He said that he has become a cowboy and has the ability to shoot since he was child. He really wants to be a soldier. This utterance has collaborative function because it announces the hearer about his ability in shot.
4. Conflictive aims at conflicting against the social purposes, such as threatening, accusing, and reprimanding. Here is the utterance which has conflictive function:
That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe.
(IA-6)

The utterance includes in the type of illocutionary act “Directive” because when Taya asks to Chris “have you killed anyone yet?” and Chris answers “That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe”. Here, Chris tries not to answer Taya’s question because he doesn’t want his wife to be sorry about what Chris does. It includes in conflictive function because it aims at conflicting with the social purpose.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter aims at stating the result of the analyses of this research; it includes both conclusion and suggestion.
A. Conclusion
There were four types of illocutionary acts used by the main character: assertives, commissives, directives, and expressives. In this research, the researcher has found out 25 utterances which were included in the types of illocutionary act expressed by the main character (Chris Kyle), in American Sniper movie. Based on the findings, the researcher found out 13 assertives type, 6 directives type, 2 commissives type, 4 expressives type. In addition, the researcher didn’t find out any declarative types in his utterances.
This research also aimed at analyzing the functions of each utterances included in the types of illocutionary act expressed by Chris Kyle as the main character. There were four functions of illocutionary act expressed by main character such as: collaborative function, convivial function, competitive function, and conflictive function. Based on each of his utterances, the researcher found out 13 collaborative functions, 5 competitive functions, 6 convivial functions, and 1 conflictive function.

B. Suggestion
The researcher hopes that this research can be useful for those who will conduct the same research about illocutionary act in the future. The researcher realizes that this research is still having several limitations in analyzing the types of illocutionary acts but the researcher hopes that this research can give a good understanding for the next researcher and also for the students who are studying about speech act especially illocutionary act in this case. The researcher hopes that this research can be one of the sources for the students who will study about speech act especially illocutionary act. The researcher suggests for the next researcher to explore this research in a wider explanation about illocutionary act in movie or other literary works.
The researcher realizes that this research still has several weaknesses in conducting the research. Thus, the researcher expects any critics and suggestions from the readers and also the next researchers to make it better.
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APPENDIX 1
TABLE PRESENTATION OF TYPES AND THE FUNCTIONS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS
No Chris’ Utterances Code Types of Illocutionary Acts Types of Act The Functions of Illocutionary Act
Assertives Directives Commissives Expressives Declaratives Competitive Convivial Collaborative Conflictive
1 Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more. IA- 1 √ State √
2 Negative sir. There is something out there. IA- 2 √ Report √
3 There was a kid who barely had any hair on his balls. Mother gives him a grenade. Sends him out there to kill marines. Dude, that was evil like I never seen before. IA- 3 √ Report √
4. Uhn, fuck. They were clean, right? IA- 4 √ State √
5. I got six…well, that’s not true. I got eight…but they dragged two off. IA- 5 √ Claim √
6. That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe. IA- 6 √ Advise √
7. Oh fuck this. I’m gonna go clear houses with Marines. IA- 7 √ Promise √
8. Moving. Get down! Get down on the ground right now! Get your fucking ass down! IA- 8 √ Command √
9. It’s a boy! IA- 9 √ State √
10. Check. Came in at an angel. Be 300 or more yards out. IA- 10 √ Command √
11. Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry IA- 11 √ Pardon √
12. No, I don’t want you getting that in your head. IA- 12 √ Advise √
13. I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you. IA- 13 √ Praise √
14. Thank you, sir. IA- 14 √ Thank √
15. Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now. IA- 15 √ Command √
16. Pick it up off the floor. Off the floor. Make sure you get all of them up. Well, you got one back here. IA- 16 √ Command √
17. Hey, some help here? My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying. Tend to her, please! Excuse me. Hey! Hey where you going? Hey! Hey, would you tend to my daughter, please? Hey! Hey, tend to my daughter, please! Right now! IA- 17 √ State √
18. For what? What are you sorry for? It’s my fault we went on that roof. IA- 18 √ Claim √
19. I’m right here, right here. Oh shit, you are blind as a bat. IA- 19 √ Suggest √
20. We have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you. IA- 20 √ State √
21. All clear. Set security IA- 21 √ State √
22. Shit. Shot came from the east! We set up in the wrong fucking direction. IA- 22 √ Blame √
23. Correction. It’s 2100 yards out. IA- 23 √ Report √
24. He has eyes on our guys. IA- 24 √ Report √
25. Tango down IA- 25 √ Report √

APPENDIX 2
SCRIPT OF AMERICAN SNIPER MOVIE
1. 00:19:23 — 00:19:52
Taya : Come on. Whoo!
Chris : not bad.
Taya : what do we get for that?
Man : to shelf.
Taya : I like that one. The brown one.
Man : Here you go.
Chris : Great.
Taya : Thank you.
Chris : Thank you sir. Have a good day.
Taya : Hello.
Chris : Good. That looks good on you.
Taya : So did you always want to be a soldier?
Chris : Oh. Uh, no I wanted to be a cowboy, but… I don’t know. I did that. I thought I was meant for something more.
Taya : So you started rescuing girls from bars?
Chris : I think I rescued that bar from you. Ha ha

2. 00:21:37 — 00:21:52
PO TOSH : You got your off-eye shut?
Chris : Well, if I close my off-eye then I can’t see what’s out there.
PO TOSH : There’s nothing out there but the target.
Chris : Negative sir. There is something out there.
PO TOSH : Punch it.
Chris : Will pushups help?
PO TOSH : Give me 50, Kyle. clear and safe.

3. 00:28:40 –00:29:29
Chris : Where is everybody? We’re just picking our dicks. We’re training those fucking haji soldiers. Hey, why aren’t you out there?
Biggle : Well, I have the shits.
Chris : What…from reading a comic book.
Biggle : It’s a fucking graphic novel, man. It’s a big difference. I heard you were on fucking fire out there. Marc lee came in, said you popped your cherry. Is that right?
Chris : There was a kid who barely had any hair on his balls. Mother gives him a grenade. Sends him out there to kill marines. Dude, that was evil like I never seen before.
Biggle : Yeah, but, hey, man…you know that kid could’ve taken out, like. Ten fucking marines, right?
Chris : Yeah, but I killed him
Biggle : You did your job. That’s the end of the story.

4. 00:33:04 — 00:33:23
Marc : Smells like piss in here.
Chris : Yeah, well…
Marc : You covered our asses out there, man. Some bullsy shots.
Chris : Uhn, fuck. They were clean, right?
Marc : Hell, yeah, they were.
Chris : Fucking sniper went write up our ass.
Marc : I already chewed out security detail. Won’t happen again.
Chris : it better not happen again. There’s a hot spot 400 meters out. I’m gonna go write up some shooter statements.

5. 00:33:25 — 00:33:40
Marc : How many did you get?
Chris : I got six…well, that’s not true. I got eight…but they dragged two off.
Marc : You got six?
Chris : Yeah, why? What’s wrong?
Marc : nothing. You got more than the rest of the snipers combined.
Chris : Yeah, but they got one of us.
Marc : You can’t shoot what you can’t see.
6. 00:34:47 — 00:35:46
Taya : Have you killed anyone yet?
Chris : That is not the way the call home is supposed to go, babe.
Taya : Don’t be weird with me. Seriously. I want you to tell me everything.
Chris : Well, there’s certain things you just can’t say over the phone.
Taya : Okay, you knocked me up, right? And I’m sitting by myself, literally assembling baby cribs…and you can’t talk to me? That’s your big plan?
Chris : I can’t stop thinking about that little pink number you wore on our honeymoon.
Taya : Yeah, it’s called a nightgown. Yeah and three days? Three days is not honeymoon.
Chris : You know, it was a good three days. I miss you real bad.
Taya : I miss you too. Hey, you want me to talk dirty to you?
Chris : Yeah.

7. 00:39:11 — 00:40:24
Chris : You said AQI has a sniper in the Olimpics…but Iraq hasn’t qualified a shooter in three games.
Goat : Well, that’s because Mustafa is not Iraqi. He is from Syria.
Chris : Hey, ones you all gain entry. I can’t see shit. So take it slow and move through your target.
Chris : Oh fuck this. I’m gonna go clear houses with Marines.
Goat : Fuck, no, I’m not coming. No, man, I like my life. I’d actually like to make it home alive. It’s not my job to go fucking knocking down doors. Those guys picked the wrong fucking job. I’m not doing that shit.
Chris : All right. Well, if I don’t see you down there…you make sure I don’t see you again.
8. 00:41:07 — 00:41:27
Chris : Moving. Get down! Get down on the ground right now! Get your fucking ass down!
Father : No no! He no understand!
Gillespie : Get down!
Chris : Why are you here? You are supposed to be evacuated. Why are you still here?
Father : I’m Sheikh Al- Obeidi.
Chris : Sheikh alla-who? Who the fuck are you?
Father : This is my home! Stay!
Chris : I don’t give the fuck it’s your home! This is a war zone, sir!
Father : Sir, please!
Chris : Get that kid down!

9. 00:45:04 — 00:46:01
Contractor : Road kill.
Agent Shead : You know The Butcher is Zarqawi’s enforcer? They say his weapon of choice is a fucking drill.
Marc Lee : went to seminary school before I joined the Navy. Was close to being a preacher.
Chris : And why didn’t you?
Marc Lee : I love to gamble, man. I love those dice.
Chris : That’s my kind of preacher.
Marc Lee : It’s like that now, huh?
Chris : Haven’t you heard? I’m the Legend. Hey, Babe (on the phone)
Taya : You were right. The doctor says it’s a boy.
Chris : What?
Taya : It’s a boy!
Chris : It’s a boy!
Marc Lee : Hell, yeah, man. Congratulations!
Chris : Ha-ha-ha.
10. 00:46:09 — 00:47:19
Taya : Chris (Gunfire on the phone).
Chris : Down! Grab the money! Get to the truck!
Marc Lee : I heard one shot.
Chris : Check. Came in at an angel. Be 300 or more yards out.
Taya : Oh my God.
Marc Lee : You got a bead on him. I got tango in the window.
Chris : Oh, shit. I got eyes on The Butcher. He has got Sheikh’s kid on the avenue. Requesting QRF.

11. 00:51:15 — 00:51:43
Chris : Hey. Hey baby
Taya : I thought you were dead.
Chris : Yeah, I know. I’m sorry. I’m sorry
Taya : I thought you were dead.
Chris : I’m not. I’m right here.
Chris : You all right?
Taya : Yeah.
12. 00:56:23 — 00:57:14
Taya : The baby’s crying. I thought you were gonna get him. No, don’t bother turning it off. I already watched it. Had to make sure you didn’t have an Iraqi girlfriend sending you sexy videos.
Chris : That’s a sniper recording his kills, Mustafa. He sells that shit on the street. Those are American soldiers.
Taya : That day we were on the phone. Was that him? Was it? Chris, just talk about it. You are not protecting me by not talking about it.
Chris : No, I don’t want you getting that in your head.
Taya : My imagination is so much worse.
Chris : Oh, no, it’s not. They are savages.
Taya : Chris.
Chris : Babe. They are fucking savages.
Taya : It’s not about them. It’s about us.
Chris : What?
Taya : You have to make it back to us. Okay?
13. 00:57:35 — 00:58:33
Chris : Hey, Grunt!
Jeff : Chris?
Chris : Hey, brother!
Jeff : Hi!
Chris : Ha-ha-ha. You all right? You in one piece?
Jeff : I heard you been kicking ass out here. All the guys. That’s what they have been saying.
Chris : That’s what they say? How you doing? You okay?
Jeff : Shoot, it’s good to see you. You are my hero, bro. okay? You always have been.
Master Chief Martin : Let’s go, Kyle! Colonel’s waiting.
Jeff : The legend, Huh!
Chris : What happened? You all right?
Jeff : Man, I’m gonna miss my ride.
Chris : Hey, what happened?
Jeff : I’m just tired, man. I’m going home.
Chris : I’m proud of you. Dad’s too. Dad’s proud of you.
Jeff : Fuck this place, Huh?
Chris : What’d you say?
Jeff : Fuck this place.
14. 00:58:56 — 00:59:16
Jones : You made chief. Congratulations.
Chris : Thank you, sir.
Jones : Gronski’s gone. A lot of top brass are. Running off a new play book now. I’ve studied insurgencies for the last decade. I know every stone thrown since before the first century. These wars are won and lost in the minds of our enemy.
Chris : Yes, sir.
15. 00:59:20 — 00:59:49
Chris : That’s a crusader cross. Yes sir.
Col. Jones : Yeah. You are the most wanted man in Iraq.
Master Chief Martin : There’s $80.000 on your head. Congrats.
Chris : Well, don’t tell my wife. She might take that number right now.
Col. Jones : Understand. You wanna put together a direct-action squad to hunt The Butcher.
Chris : Yes, sir.
Col. Jones : We got some intel indicating his area of operations. I want you to fear of God into this savages…and find his ass.
16. 01:12:26 — 01:13:08
Chris : Want another one or are you good?
Colton : Look, what is this?
Chris : You get what it gives you. That’s how this thing works. You don’t get that one, if that’s the one you want.
Colton : I like that.
Chris : That’s good. That’s strong.
Receptionist : Chris, your truck’s ready.
Chris : You can move that all you want.
Colton : Your truck’s ready. Impossible.
Receptionist : Give me your credit card.
Chris : Okay, interesting. I gave it to you.
Receptionist : Right.
Chris : Pick it up off the floor. Off the floor. Make sure you get all of them up. Well, you got one back here..
17. 01:14:56 — 01:15:57
Chris : All right. Let’s go meet your sister, Bubba.
Chris : Hey, some help here? My daughter’s crying. That’s my daughter over there. I think she is crying. Tend to her, please! Excuse me. Hey! Hey where you going? Hey! Hey, would you tend to my daughter, please? Hey! Hey, tend to my daughter, please! Right now!

18. 01:20:50 — 01:22:56
Soldier : We got them.
Dauber : Vehicle is secure.
Biggles : Set security, Chris.
Chris : Nope. Rooftop’s secure. Ahem. Aren’t you worried that she is gonna take that ring to Zales…find out how much you spent?
Biggles : Well, no, I wasn’t.
Chris : Set security.
Biggles : Now, I’m little worried about it.
Chris : You should be.
Biggles : What do you mean, she can trace the diamond to Zales?
Chris : I don’t think that’s gonna…you okay, Buddy? You’re all right? Got man down. Biggles is down. Northwest corner. Rooftop. Hang in there, bud. I need a corpsman right now. Okay, bubba. We’re gonna pick you up. I’m gonna take you.
Biggles : I can walk.
Chris : There we go. I got him. I got him.
Dauber : Fuck.
Chris : Hang in there Biggles. Hang in Biggles. It’s okay.
Biggles : Shit, I’m sorry, man.
Chris : For what? What are you sorry for? It’s my fault we went on that roof.
Biggles : Am I gonna die?
Dauber : Fuck, no, Biggles. You are a fucking frogman. Frogman don’t fucking die. Gonna put some sand in this fucking cut, get you a fucking canteen of water. You are gonna be fucking fine. Hang in there.
Biggles : Hey, Chris. You make sure she gets that ring, all right?
Chris : Sure will.
19. 01:29:52 — 01:30:28
Chris : Hey, buddy.
Biggles : Hey, Chris?
Chris : Yeah
Biggles : Where are you at?
Chris : I’m right here, right here. Oh shit, you are blind as a bat.
Biggles : Yeah. It fucking blows. They say they’re gonna fix my face, though. Oh, thank God.
Chris : About time. Your face needs some fixing.
Biggles : it’s too soon, man.
Chris : It’s too soon?
Biggles : Way too soon.
Chris : Hey, I heard you proposed.
Biggles : Yeah.
Chris : Well, good for you. You didn’t tell her you bought that Diamond. You told her you bought it at Zales, right?
Biggles : No.
Chris : You didn’t?
Biggles : No no got a new one. It’s smaller one. Her dad helped me out with it.
Chris : Oh nice, oh good.
20. 01:30:29 — 01:31:25
Biggles : She wouldn’t leave me, bro. I told her to go and she wouldn’t leave. She is getting a raw fucking deal.
Chris : Why would you say that? Don’t say that. She’s got you. All two inches of you.
Biggles : Two inches. Yeah, you know, I’m glad this happened to me and not you. Ain’t no way you could’ve handled it.
Chris : You are probably right.
Biggles : so they say you are the deadliest sniper in U.S. military history. Oh, is that right? That’s what I heard?
Chris : The bad guys ended up into Sadr city.
Biggles : You are not going back.
Chris : We are. We’ll wall them in and hunt them down.
Biggles : Come on. You don’t have to do that.
Chris : We have to do that. You are my brother and they are gonna fucking pay for what they did to you.
Biggles : Hooyah, Legend. Fucking hooyah.

21. 01:39:11 — 01:39:31
Chris : clear. We’re maneuver. You’re base. Go
Ranger one : go!
Chris : clear. Moving
Ranger one : Go go
Chris : All clear. Set security.
22. 01:40:12 — 01:41:26
Ranger one : The streets are crawling. Hold your fire.
“D” : Enter the fucking sandman.
Chris : Shit. Shot came from the east! We set up in the wrong fucking direction.
Ranger one : Doesn’t matter. Hold your fire. We got uglies right below us.
23. 01:42:02 — 01:42:39
Chris : I got something 1900 yards out.
Ranger one : Fuck, He can’t even see that far out. Hold your fire. You’ll expose us all.
“D” : He is right, Legend. No bueno
Chris : Correction. It’s 2100 yards out.
“D” : it’s more than a mile. Impossible shot, Chris.
Chris : It’s him. This is task unit bruiser. I got eyes on target. Initiate QRF over.
Officer : Copy that. ET on quick reaction force is 20 minutes out.
24. 01:42:56 — 01:43:09
Chris : He has eyes on our guys.
“D” : Can you confirm it’s him?
Chris : It’s him. Oh, it’s him.
“D” : It’s your call, Chris.
Ranger one : Quick reaction force is 20 minutes out. You’ll stand the fuck down.
25. 01:44:07 — 01:44:40
Ranger one : You just fucked us, Legend.
Chris : Tango down
Ranger one : we need QRF ASAP.
“D” : mission accomplished.
Chris : He had eyes on our guys and I took him out.
Ranger one : Yeah. And now, we’re fucked like football bat.
“D” : Biggles would be proud.

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