GRAM POSITIF

Coccus
1. Pneumococcal
• Strep pneumonia
• Otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis
2. Staphylococcal
• S. aureus
• Skin and soft tissue, musculoskeletal, respiratory tract infection, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, TSS, SSSS, device-related infection
3. Streptococcal and Enterococcal
Table 136–1 Classification of Streptococci

Lancefield Group Representative Species Hemolytic Pattern Typical Infections
A S. pyogenes Pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever
B S. agalactiae Neonatal sepsis and meningitis, puerperal infection, urinary tract infection, diabetic ulcer infection, endocarditis
C, G S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Cellulitis, bacteremia, endocarditis
D Enterococcia: E. faecalis; E. faecium Usually nonhemolytic Urinary tract infection, nosocomial bacteremia, endocarditis
Nonenterococci: S. bovis Usually nonhemolytic Bacteremia, endocarditis
Variable or nongroupable Viridans streptococci: S. sanguis; S. mitis Endocarditis, dental abscess, brain abscess
Intermedius or milleri group: S. intermedius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus Variable Brain abscess, visceral abscess
Anaerobic streptococcib: Peptostreptococcus magnus Usually nonhemolytic Sinusitis, pneumonia, empyema, brain abscess, liver abscess

Basil
4. Corynebacterial
• Diphteria
5. Listeria monocytogenes
• Anaerob
• Sepsis
• CNS infection
• Endocarditis
• Gastrointestinal
• Focal infection
6. Clostridium
• Anaerob
• Clostridium tetany
• Clostridium botulinum
• Gas gangrene

GRAM NEGATIF
Coccus
1. Meningococcal
• Neisseria meningitidis
• Diplococcus
• Life threatening diseases : meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia
• Pneumonia, septic arthritis, pericarditis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis
2. Gonococcal
• Diplococcus
3. Moraxella
• Moraxella catarrhalis
• Otitis media, sinusitis, bronchopulmonary infection

Coccobacillus
4. Haemophilus
• Haemophilus influenzae
• Hib meningitis
• Pneumonia, COPD exacerbations, otitis media
• Haemophilus ducreyi –> chanchroid

Miscellaneous
5. HACEK
• Haemophillus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae
Basil
6. Legionella
7. Bordetella
• Bordetella pertussis
8. Enteric
• Escherichia coli
• Klebsiella
• Proteus
• Enterobacter
• Acinetobacter
• Serratia
• Citrobacter
• Morganella and Providencia
9. Helicobacter pylori
10. Pseudomonas
11. Salmonellosis
12. Shigellosis
13. Campilobacter
14. Vibrio
15. Brucellosis
16. Tularemia
17. Yersinia
18. Bartonella
19. Donovanosis

Gram Positif
– Strep, Group A, B, C, G
– Strep. Pneumoniae
– Viridans strep
– Strep. Milleri
– Enterococcus faecalis
– Enterococcus faecium
– Staph. Aureus (MSSA)
– Staph. Aureus (MRSA)
– Staph. Aureus (CA-MRSA)
– Staph. Epidermidis
– C. jeikeium
– L. monocytogenes
Gram negatif
– N. gonorrhoeae
– N. miningitidis
– M. catarrhalis
– H. influenzae
– E. coli
– Klebsiella sp.
– E. coli/Klebs sp ESBL+
– E. coli/Klebs sp KPC+
– Enterobacter sp.
– Serratia sp.
– Serrratia marcescens
– Salmonella sp
– Shigella sp.
– Proteus mirabilis
– Proteus vulgaris
– Providencia sp.
– Morganella sp.
– Citrobacter sp.
– Aeromonas sp
– Acinetobacter sp.
– Ps. Aeruginosa
– B. (Ps.) cepacia
– S. (X.) maltophilia
– Y. eterocolitica
– Legionella sp.
– P. Multocida
– H. ducreyi
– C. freundii
– C. diversus
– F. tularensis
– Brucella sp
– V. vulnificus

Misc:
– Chlamydophila sp
– M. pneumoniae
– Rickettsia sp
– Mycobacterium avium
Anaerobes:
– Actinomyces
– Bacteroides fragilis
– P. melaninogenica
– Clostridium difficile
– Clostridium (not difficile)
– Peptostreptococcus sp.

Penicillin
– Peniccilllin G :
o bagus untuk beberapa gram positif, kecuali staph aureus
o bisa untuk beberapa anaerob (clostridium)
o bisa untuk N. meningitidis
Aminopenicillins
– ampicillin / amoxicillin
o gram positif, tapi tambah sedikit kekuatan ke gram negatif (salmonella, shigella, e. coli, h. influenza)
– amoxiclav
o gram positif
o gram negatif
o anaerob
o tapi tidak untuk pseudomonas aeruginosa
– ampisillin sulbactam
o gram positif, negatif, anaerob
o tdk pseudomonas
antipseudomonas
carbapenem
– meropenem
o gram positif, bisa untuk staph aureus (MSSA)
o gram negatif
o anaerob
fluoroquinolones
– ciprofloxacin
o gram positif
o lumayan bisa untuk strep, tapi yg UTI aja, tidak sistemik
o kebanyakan gram negatif
o bisa untuk pseudomonas aeruginosa
– Levofloxacin
o Gram positif
o Gram negatif
o anaerob

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