pollution
a)      Oil
MAJOR TYPES OF OCEAN POLLUTION
Ocean Pollution

i)        Sources

(1)   Runoff: 363 million gallons/year
(2)   Routine Maintenance: 137 million gallons/year
(3)   Air Pollution: 92 million gallons/year
(4)   Natural Seeps: 62 million gallons/year
(5)   Big Spills: 37 million gallons/year
(6)   Offshore Drilling:15 million gallons/year
ii)      Effects
(1)   Kills marine animals
(a)    Destroys a seabird’s ability to insulate and they die of hypothermia
(b)   Animals die if they swallow it
(2)   Damages coastal ecosystems, consequences can last decades
(a)    Covers coast lines destroying flora and fauna
(b)   It may take mangroves 50 years to recover
(3)   Economic impact
(a)    Economically important species of shell fish and fin fish are easily killed by oil pollution
(b)   Devastates local economies dependent on fishing
b)      Toxic Materials
i)        Heavy Metals and slowly degrading chemicals
(1)   Cadmium, Mercury, Lead 
ii)      Persistent Organic Pollutants
(1)   Dioxin, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
iii)    Sources
(1)   Factory waste
(2)   Agriculture
(3)   Air pollution
(4)   Household cleaning supplies
iv)    Effects
(1)   Destroy normal immune function
(a)    Organisms become susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia an cancer
(2)   Toxics can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in an ecosystem, increasing in concentration as they go up the food chain.
(a)    Top predators, such as orcas and tuna can have extremely high levels of toxics
c)      Sewage and Eutrophication.
i)        Sources
(1)   Many cities around the world dump their sewage, either treated or untreated, into the ocean
(2)   Large vessels, such as cruise ships, can also add substantial amounts of sewage to the environment, particularly in pristine areas such as Southeast Alaska
ii)      Effects
(1)   Eutrophication: Having waters rich in nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae,
(a)    Eutrophication leads to oxygen depletion
(i)     Sewage increases nutrient levels in the ocean causing large algae blooms
(ii)   After the bloom dies, microbes decompose the algae using up all the oxygen in the water
(b)   Without oxygen, other organisms, such as fish, die
(2)   Introduces pathogens
(a)    Pathogens found in human waste enter the food web and may, in turn, infect people who eat fish and shellfish from the contaminated area.
d)     Garbage
i)        Sources
(1)   Unregulated dumping of garbage from ships and coastal communities
(a)    It’s very hard to enforce bans on ocean dumping
(2)   14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the ocean each year
ii)      Effects
(1)   Large pieces of garbage can  ensnare marine animals, killing them
(2)   Many animals ingest the garbage, which can also kill them.
(a)    267 marine species have been reported entangled in or having ingested marine debris
(i)     86% of all sea turtle species, 44% of all sea bird species and 43% of all marine mammal species
(3)   Fouls ship motors and other marine machinery.
e)       Radioactive Waste
i)        Sources
(1)   Dumping of radioactive waste at sea is banned, but some is still discharged from coastal facilities
ii)      Effects
(1)   Not well known
On land, radioactivity causes birth defects and cancers such as leukemia