ENGLISH LEARNING TEACHING
SUMMARY OF LEARNING METHOD
A) Lesson Study
Lesson Study is a teacher learning method originating in Japan in the 1870s. It was brought to the attention of US researchers following the success of Japan’s pupils in mathematics in the TIMMS international survey of performance in mathematics and science by 10 and 4 year olds. I became aware of Lesson Study in 2001 (as I promoting participation in the LH2L project by Essex schools) and was one of the first to trial Lesson Study in England in 2001-2 in the London Borough of Redbridge. It was the success of these trials and also encouragement from Professor Mary James which prompted my research proposal in 2003.
Lesson Study involves a group of teachers improving pedagogic practice in an area of teaching revealed by their data to need improving. They do this by researching approaches likely to make the difference they seek and then systematically carrying out a sequence of jointly planned, taught and analysed ‘research lessons’.
Once they have developed an approach which they feel is replicable they share what they have done with colleagues either though a presentation, through a ‘public research lesson’ (popular in Japan where the lesson is taught in the school hall before an invited audience of local teachers and advisers and is followed by a discussion involving adults and the children) or shared by members of the group working with other teachers using the lesson study cycle to develop the approach elsewhere.
B) Examples Non Examples
Example and Non-example is a great way to build concepts that provide students a deeper understanding of the vocabulary terms they are learning.
The activity itself is fairly simple. You need several examples of things that have all of the characteristics of a concept. It is important that you determine the characteristics that the object must have to perfectly represent the concept. This week we are going to use the word “polygons.” So, by definition, polygons have straight sides, are 2-dimensional, and are closed figures. Examples will be easy to come by: triangles, squares, trapezoids, star, etc…
Then you need several good non-examples. The non-examples should have at least one of the characteristics of the example. They should not be something completely off target, like “fire.” For things that are not polygons, we would present a figure without straight sides such as a circle or oval, a 3-dimensional object such as a cube, and a figure with all straights sides that isn’t closed.
To begin, one object is presented and placed on one side of the display area (example). A second object is presented and placed on the same side. Students are then asked to determine what is alike about these objects. A third object is presented and placed on the other side (non-example) of the display. Students are given the opportunity to discuss why it doesn’t belong with the others. Continue in this way with several more objects until the students feel certain they know how the objects are being sorted. Ask for their explanations. Allow students to determine the place for the remaining objects and/or allow students to suggest additional objects for the example side.
C) Picture and Picture
Picture and picture method is a method that allow Students to explore the concept of character development through focused experiences with picture books. The class searches the text and illustrations for cues to character development and uses a graphic organizer to complete a structured analysis of character in the picture books. Students then have the opportunity to build bridges from their own experiences as readers to those skills needed as writers by revising their stories to strengthen character development.
From our Madeline Hunter days, we all know that our first step in the teaching process is to activate prior knowledge. Picture books allow you to activate not only prior knowledge but also attitudes, beliefs, and misconceptions. Picture books then create a bridge between the student’s schema (internal organization of concepts) and the newly introduced learning.
Picture a Social Studies classroom. As students settle down, the teacher begins to read aloud the picture book The Honest-to-Goodness Truth by Patricia McKissack.
After reading, the teacher says, “I thought we all agreed yesterday in our discussion about elections that honesty is the best policy? This book seems to say almost the exact opposite! So who’s right? Is there actually a time or a situation where deceit is not only allowed, but necessary?” And this discussion, in turn, leads to a lesson on leaders who knowingly misled their people for what they thought were the right reasons, under the given circumstances.
D) Numbered Heads Together
The structure of Numbered Heads Together is derived from the work of Spencer Kagan. There are a number of variations on the method, some very simple and others with a greater degree of complexity. This structure can be used in conjunction with ‘Think, Pair, Share’ early in the development of the Co-operative Classroom. Learning with spellings.
There is an expectation that everyone in the group will be able to answer the question following the discussion.
Kagen suggests the teacher phrases questions beginning with; “put your heads together and…” or “Make sure you can all…” There are many other ways of ensuring the teacher cues the students into the collaborative activity.
The students work together. They quite literally “put their heads together” in order to solve the problem and also
Eensure that everyone in the group can answer the question.
• The teacher now asks for an answer by calling a number. (this might be at random or can initially decided by the teacher in order to ensure the process is successful) The students with the number called then take it in turns to answer.
• If there are not enough students ready to respond the teacher may judge that a little more time
• is needed or extra support given.
• When the teacher is satisfied answers can be taken, there are a number of choices:
• Select one student.
• Select one but ask others to elaborate, comment etc.
• Ask different students to give a particular part of the answer
• All students showing their work.
• Students using whiteboards to show their group work.
E) Cooperative script
Cooperative script is an approach to organizing classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences. It differs from group work, and it has been described as “structuring positive interdependence. Students must work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals. Unlike individual learning, which can be competitive in nature, students learning cooperatively capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, monitoring one another’s work, etc.). Furthermore, the teacher’s role changes from giving information to facilitating students’ learning. Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. Ross and Smyth (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended, and involve higher order thinking tasks. five essential elements are identified for the successful incorporation of cooperative learning in the classroom.
Cooperative script is a generic term for various small group interactive instructional procedures. Students work together on academic tasks in small groups to help themselves and their teammates learn together. In general, cooperative learning methods share the following five characteristics.
• Student work together on common tasks or learning activities that are best handled through group work.
• Students work together in small groups containing two to five members.
• Students use cooperative, pro-social behavior to accomplish their common tasks or learning activities.
• Students are positively interdependent. Activities are structured so that students need each other to accomplish their common tasks or learning activities.
• Students are individually accountable or responsible for their work or learning.
F) Explicit instruction
Explicit instruction is a systematic instructional approach that includes set of delivery and design procedures derived from effective schools research merged with behavior analysis. There are two essential components to well designed explicit instruction: (a) visible delivery features are group instruction with a high level of teacher and student interactions, and (b) the less observable, instructional design principles and assumptions that make up the content and strategies to be taught.
Explicit teaching is not just merely giving students clear directions or even stating the learning goals at the beginning of a lesson – it is a way of thinking about and acting out teaching and learning in a principled way throughout the lesson (from assessment through to planning, implementation and review).
Explicit instructional talk is evident when it directly and intentionally prepares students for their learning, informs them of the learning path and enables them to develop metacognitive strategies for knowing that learning has taken place. It is an approach that clearly explicates and maintains the ‘what’, the ‘how’ and the ‘why’ of any given lesson. It:
• makes assessment and learning purposes and goals clear by presenting students with ‘upfront’ information about the new learning in terms of the primary topic and purpose for the learning or assessment task
• engages student thinking for the purpose of learning about specific aspects of literacy and involves a clear progressive lesson structure that allows introduction-elaboration-practice-summary/review. It requires the teacher to work within a structured framework for the focused teaching of all aspects of literacy that connects what is new to what is known
• assesses student learning throughout the lesson by monitoring the talk. It responds to student contributions in a way that makes the connections to specific learning a priority
• responds to students’ contributions in lessons in a meaningful way that provides scope for them to reformulate ideas, skills and knowledge and articulate their learning to make real connections to their learning at all stages of the lesson
• builds on, and asks students to build on to each others’ responses
• engages in focused instructional talk, and does not allow conversations about ‘everyday familiar topics’ or talk orienting to ‘behaviour management’ to cut into and override the main learning agenda
• enables the Four Roles of the Reader to be presented systematically and strategically
• allows time at the end of the lesson for students to share their learning with talk (or brief written notes) that summarise, review or reflect on the main learning points of the lesson
G) Inside-Outside Circle
Inside-Outside Circle (Kagan, 1994) is a summarization technique that gets students up and moving. It provides a way to get students who normally would not talk to interact with others. After students read a section of text, the teacher divides the group. Half of the students stand up and form a circle with their backs to the inside of the circle. They are partner A. The other half of the students form a circle facing a partner from the first circle. These students are partner B. Partner A will speak first, quickly summarizing what they read. This takes about a minute. Then partner B speaks for the same length of time, adding to the summary. If the teacher stands in the center of the circle, he/she can easily monitor student responses.
Now it is time to move. Have the students who are partner A raise their right hands and then move two people to the right to meet with a new partner. Repeat the summary with partner B speaking first. For the third move, have all students who are partner B raise their right hand and move two people to the right. After they are with a new partner, they continue with the summary with partner A speaking first. Depending on the size of the class, teachers may have students move more or fewer times to complete the activity. Inside-Outside Circle holds all students accountable for having something to say. The teacher can use this activity as a formative assessment by standing in the center of the circle and listening to the conversations that take place.
• forms two concentric circles containing the same number of students. Students in the inside circle
face a partner standing in the outside circle.
• asks students from the inside circle to share something with their partner in timed activity.
• has students reverse roles. The students on the outside circle share with their partner,
• controls the timing, e.g., “Outside circle, it’s your turn to share for one minute.”
• has the inside circle rotate and the students turn to face their new partner. Repeat steps 2 and 3.
H) Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) is a school-based program that targets reading, writing, and language arts in grades 2 through 6. The three principle program elements are direct instruction in reading comprehension, story-related activities, and integrated language arts/writing instruction. Each student is paired with another student and then assigned to a group of students at the same or different reading level. These learning teams work cooperatively on program-related activities. All activities follow a cycle that involves teacher presentation, team practice, peer pre-assessment, additional practice, and testing. Students are encouraged to cooperate and help one another, because students’ scores on individual assessments are summed to form team scores.
Several years ago, CIRC was adapted to form one component of Reading Wings, a comprehensive reading program in the Roots and Wings whole-school reform model. The Roots and Wings model consists of elementary school age learning programs, reading and language arts instruction, tutoring, family support and integrated services, social studies and science instruction, and mathematics instruction. CIRC has been incorporated into a primer-level reading program called Reading Wings.
I) Student Facilitator and Explaining
The word facilitate means to “make easier”. It is a method of interacting with students that enhances their learning. A variety of techniques involving coaching, mentoring and positive reinforcement and there is Many terms describe the facilitated learning environment including; experientiallearning, constructivist learning, and invitational learning. To be effective at facilitation you need to know and understand your audience.
Adults as learners
A. Adult learning styles are different from children
B. Most of us have not experienced excellence in education as adults
1. When we have no reference point for excellence we rely upon traditional lecture and practical sessions
C. Students need to see that professional development and their day-to-day activities are related and relevant
1. Adults need to “buy-in” to the process
a. Making the learning meaningful is one method to promote this
D. Students need direct, concrete experiences in which they apply learning in the real world
1. Activities need to be thought out carefully so they integrate into the total learning experience
E. Adult learning has ego involvement
1. Professional development must be structured to provide support from peers
and to reduce the fear of judgment by others
F. Students need constant feedback
1. Feedback should include performance evaluation and methods to improve performance
2. Adults should be allowed input into the feedback process
a. Discuss the correct answer instead of telling them the correct answer
G. Students need to participate in small group activities during the learning experience to move them through the various levels of the domains of learning
1. Transfer of learning for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated by the instructor
a. Transfer of learning refers to the process where adults move what they are learning from the lower domain levels into the higher domain levels
b. Coaching and other support methods are needed to enhance transference
J) Talking Stick
The Talking Stick was a method used by native Americans, to let everyone speak their mind during a council meeting, a type of tribal meeting. According to the indigenous American’s tradition, the stick was imbued with spiritual qualities, that called up the spirit of their ancestors to guide them in making good decisions. The stick ensured that all members, who wished to speak, had their ideas heard. All members of the circle were valued equally.
Dr. Locust, at the American Research and Training Center in Tucson, Arizona, describes the talking stick, according to native American tradition:
“The talking stick has been used for centuries by many Indian tribes as a means of just and impartial hearing. The talking stick was commonly used in council circles to decide who had the right to speak. When matters of great concern would come before the council, the leading elder would hold the talking stick, and begin the discussion. When he would finish what he had to say, he would hold out the talking stick, and whoever would speak after him would take it. In this manner, the stick would be passed from one individual to another until all who wanted to speak had done so. The stick was then passed back to the elder for safe keeping.” (Locust, 1998) There are rules about using the talking stick, which Locust states:
“Whoever holds the talking stick has within his hands the power of words. Only he can speak while he holds the stick, and the other council members must remain silent. The eagle feather tied to the stick gives him the courage and wisdom to speak truthfully and wisely. The rabbit fur on the end of the stick, reminds him that his words must come from his heart. ” (Locust, 1998)
We all know that speaking the truth is powerful. The history of AA (Alcoholic Anonymous) and other step programs and the practice of psychotherapy are all based on this awareness: that speaking the truth is healing. But it is healing for the group as a whole because as each individual listens, in silence and reverence, a whole world of understanding opens up.
K) Snowball Throwing
In every lesson, we have to establish new words and practice our students, making clear the meanings and the way in which each can be used. That is very common to teach vocabulary as a present study through an interesting technique.
There are many advantages of using games in the classroom; they are follows:
1. Games are welcome break of the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills of speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaning context for language use.
There are of course many different techniques which can be effectively used in teaching vocabulary used in teaching elementary school students. In this study, only one technique of teaching vocabulary is discussed: teaching vocabulary through snowball throwing technique.
Snowball throwing technique is one of vocabulary games which make students enjoy and can decrease worry in learning vocabulary. Snowball throwing encourages the students to be active in speaking participation in the classroom, because this method contains a rich communication where students must be active. Snowball throwing techniques haves positive effect on the students memory development. In addition, the purpose of this technique is appropriate in reviewing the vocabulary for the students. In teaching learning process, snowball throwing technique can be a good media in developing students’ vocabulary.
The role of teaching vocabulary through Snowball Throwing Technique.
This technique is not difficult to apply. The role is very simple to the subject under study when the play this technique. The role of teaching snowball throwing technique can play like a game. It can be explained as below:
1. Giving one topic for the student about what topic will you teach. For example:”Transportations”.
2. Asking the students to stand up.
3. The teacher plays the children music using the tape recorder.
4. The teacher throws the ball to the first student. The first student throw the ball to the other students, taking turns from the right side to the left side during the music plays and then suddenly the teacher stop the music.
5. The teacher shows a picture about the topic to the students. The last student which holds the ball must answer what the teacher shows. If the student cannot answer, the games will be continue to the next student until anyone can answer correctly and if all of the students cannot answer correctly, the teacher will answer what the picture is about. This situation can make students adroit in three activities at the same time (seeing, hearing, and speaking).
6. The teacher explains and gives simple question that related to the picture.
7. This step continues until the teacher finishers the last picture
This technique can make the players or in this case the students more adroit and their ability about memorizing the English vocabulary is more increased because they learn in an enjoyable way. Fun in learning with snowball throwing technique brings real word context in to the classroom and enhances students to use English in flexible communicative way. It can make students relax and fun to study.
L) Mind Mapping
• A visual-spatial means of representing information;
• A good way to organise ideas;
• An innovative way to take notes (of a lecture, talk, discussion, etc.);
• An interesting way to plan essays, projects and assignments;
• An effective revision technique;
• A more structured approach to brainstorming;
• A way of overcoming the initial apprehension of those who consider themselves “poor at spelling”;
• A way of encouraging those who are good at drawing and sketching;
• Easy enough for everyone to do;
• An approach that suits activist learners (the “do-ers”);
• An approach that suits theorist learners (the “thinkers”);
• An approach that suits pragmatist learners (the “hands-on” students);
• An approach that can be easily adapted to suit the needs of reflective learners;
• A useful way to encourage activist learners to reflect on their initial suggestions
Start with a huge piece of paper and turn it sideways (into “landscape” orientation). This provides most space for writing (which tends to go from left-to-right rather than top-to-bottom) and also corresponds best with the way that our eyes view the world. Try to write most of your words in a generally horizontal direction.
Starting with the central idea or theme, write this in the centre of the paper in capital letters (or other distinctive lettering) and illustrate it, using colour.
Draw “branches” for each of your main sub-themes, using different colours for each branch, and write the word along the branch, adding a suitable illustration. It may be helpful to “brainstorm” sub-themes and associated ideas before committing them to the map.
Work on each of these branches systematically or jump about all over the place – but try to organise each new idea so that it connects with previous ideas. If ideas recur in different parts of the map, that’s OK. If you get a mental block just draw in a blank line to remind yourself to come back to the relevant section. You may want to re-work your original Mindmap (or use the post-it note technique) so that you get it “just right”.
M) Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
In Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) (Slavin, 1994a), students are assigned to four-member learning teams that are mixed in performance level, gender, and ethnicity. The teacher presents a lesson, and then students work within their teams to make sure that all team members have mastered the lesson. Finally, all students take individual quizzes on the material, at which time they may not help one another.
Students’ quiz scores are compared to their own past averages, and points are awarded on the basis of the degree to which students meet or exceed their own earlier performance. These points are then summed to form team scores, and teams that meet certain criteria may earn certificates or other rewards. In a related method called Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), students play games with members of other teams to add points to their team scores.
STAD and TGT have been used in a wide variety of subjects, from mathematics to language arts to social studies, and have been used from second grade through college. The STAD method is most appropriate for teaching well-defined objectives with single right answers, such as mathematical computations and applications, language usage and mechanics, geography and map skills, and science facts and concepts. However, it can easily be adapted for use with less well-defined objectives by incorporating more open-ended assessments, such as essays or performances.
N) Kepala Bernomor Struktur
Number Head Together (NHT) is a cooperative learning strategy designed to influence the students interaction pattern and as the alternative for traditional class structure. Number Head Together developed first by Spencer Kagan (1993) to involve more student in learning material which consist in a lesson and to know their knowledge about the material given.
The teacher use four phase structure to asking the question for student in the class, they are:
Phase I: Numbering
In the phase the teacher divide the student into some groups consist of 3 to 5 person and each member of groups given number from 1 to 5
Phase II: Asking Question
Pose a question or a problem to the class and give the groups fifteen minutes of “Head Together
Phase III: Heads Together
The student put their head together to the decide one appropriate answer making sure that every group member know the agreed upon answer.
Phase IV: Answering the Question
The teacher calls a member at random and only student with the member respond to the question.
This cooperative learning strategy promotes discussion and both individual and group accountability. This strategy is beneficial for reviewing and integrating subject matter. Students with special needs often benefit when this strategy is used. After direct instruction of the material, the group supports each member and provides opportunities for practice, rehearsal, and discussion of content material. Group learning methods encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and to learn from one another, as well as from the instructor (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1994).
O) Word Scramble
A word scramble game for two or more players utilizing a plurality of cards wherein each card has imprinted a plurality of words with a scrambled version of the word’s letters next to each word. One of the players selects and presents the selected scrambled version of the word to the other player or players who then attempt to unscramble the letters to form the correct word within the given time limit. Points are awarded to the player who is the first to form a word. A player wins when his or her score reaches a pre-determined value.
Each player draws a card from the card set concealing the printed words from other players. Each player rolls the die and the player with the high die number will be the first “teacher”. If the die roll results in a tie between players those players roll the die again until the “teacher” is determined. Once play has started the “teacher” role is past clockwise around the table to the other players. The teacher selects a word from his or her word card hoping that the other players will not be able to unscramble the letters and form the word. The teacher reads carefully the letters of the scrambled word in the order as printed on the card. The other players write down the scramble letters on their paper. When the teacher has completed reading the scramble letters the timing device is immediately activated.
The amount of time given to play each round should vary and correspond to the degree of difficulty. The degree of difficulty is increased by the use of cards with more letters per word. After the timing device is activated each player races his or her opponent attempting to be the first to unscramble the word correctly. When a player has unscrambled the word he or she gives a signal for recognition from the teacher. The signal for recognition may be the player raising his or her hand or verbally indicating that he or she has formed the word. The teacher acknowledges whether or not the given word is correct. If the player’s given word is correct the player is awarded one point. If the player gives an incorrect word, that player loses a point and play continues until the correct answer is given or until the time period expires. If no players give a correct answer during the play period then the teacher is awarded a point. After each play period the teacher role is past clockwise to the next player. The new teacher again selects and presents the scrambled letters to the other players and activates the timing device. New cards are drawn from the card set after the player has used all word choices on the given card. Play is continued until a player reaches a predetermined score thereby winning the game.
As an option, after a player forms a word which is not the correct word however the word is found in a dictionary containing the same letters and if such unscramble version is the first answer given by any player that player is awarded a point. Play is then continued for the remainder of the time period and if that same player or another player forms the correct word, that player also is awarded a point. Again, play is continued until a player reaches a predetermined score thereby winning the game.
P) Word Square
As the title implies, the Word Square method first involves a student drawing a box (it should take up half of their notebook paper) and dividing that box into four, even squares. The first square should be labeled (at the top) “synonyms”, the next square “antonyms”, the third square “drawing”, and finally, the fourth square is labeled “sentence”.
Using a thesaurus, dictionary, or the text’s context clues, students should list two or three synonyms for the selected vocabulary word in square one, and do the same for selecting antonyms for square two. In square three, instruct students to come up with a visual representation that helps them understand the meaning of the word.
For example, if the word was “anticipation”, you could suggest a student draw a roller coaster at its highest peak. Students should draw a simple picture that best symbolizes and represents the vocabulary word. The fourth box should contain a student-created meaningful sentence using the word. You can also instruct them to copy the sentence where the word is used (from the text) if you want them to infer meaning from context clues.
You may be thinking that it is impossible to implement this method, due to the large amounts of vocabulary you teach in your classroom. You do not have to assign students to use this technique on EVERY vocabulary word. Only have students use this method on three or four words per chapter list, and engage them in other means of vocabulary instruction with the rest of the list.
Using this method sparingly is important, because students will tire and create sloppy work if they are expected to create fifty Word Squares for their list of fifty words. Their drawings and sentences will definitely become lack-luster by the seventh or eighth word! Use this for reinforcement and to shake up your traditional modes of teaching vocabulary
Q) Concept Sentence
As students are learning about concept of word they are building upon the foundations in the developmental progression of reading. This progression also includes learning about concepts of print (also referred to as print awareness). Not to be confused with concept of word, concept of print includes an understanding that: print carries meaning, that books contain letters, words, sentences, and spaces. It also includes understanding what books are used for, and that books have parts such as a front cover, back cover and a spine.
Several activities are helpful for building the skills associated with concept of word in students from PreK to 3rd grade. A few of these activities are specifically described below.
One of the simplest ways to develop a concept of word is to work individually with a child and a picture he or she has drawn. “Tell me about your picture!” As the student begins to talk, summarize what he has said in a few words or consider the child’s words as dictation. “The leaves are falling.” Draw one line for each word under the picture. Then help the child begin to write sounds for each different word in their dictation.
Physical involvement and hands-on activities are great for increasing learning in young children. One activity to support concept of word learning is to have each student physically represent a word in a sentence that the teacher creates. Create single-page size cards for each student, with one word on each card (for example “We” “went” “to” “the” “store”). Students work together to arrange themselves into the proper order to form a sentence.
This activity includes active learning about words as part of a sentence. Teachers prepare a sheet of simple sentences printed out with a large-size font. Students cut apart the words from a sentence, and then move the individual word cards around, manipulating the words to re-create the sentence in proper order. This helps encourage students to recognize that each word is a separate entity, has meaning, and is separated by a space within each sentence.
Teachers can show students how to build and rebuild sentences by connecting unifix cubes. Students can learn about concept of word as they grasp the understanding that each cube represents a word in the target sentence regardless of syllables within words. This activity includes the use of unifix cubes
The Get Ready to Read site offers 36 activity cards for use with an individual child or a group of children, in English and in Spanish.
R) Make – A Match
We assessed the learning styles preference of forty-five students and divided them into groups based on their learning preference. Each group then completed 4 assignments each highlighting one of four learning preferences (auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic). Group scores on each assignment showed that designing assignments to match students’ learning styles does not lead to better performance but active learning positively relates to overall learning. Scores on the auditory and tactile assignments were significantly different, but not in the hypothesized direction (i.e., auditory learners did not perform best on the auditory assignment). Nonetheless, students preferred assignments that matched their particular learning styles.
Forty-five educational psychology students from a mid-size midwestern university participated voluntarily in this study. The majority of the students were second-semester sophomores (85%). The remaining were second semester freshmen (5%), first semester sophomores (9%), and third year students (1%). The sample consisted of 41 females and 7 males.
The Barsch Learning Style Inventory (BLSI, Barsch, 1996) consists of 32 statements that elicit self-diagnostic responses using a 3-point Likert-type scale, 1 (seldom) to 3 (often). Participants first read a brief statement and then rated the extent to which it best described their skills and typical academic habits (e.g., I remember best when writing things down several times, I would rather listen to a good lecture or speech than read the same material in a textbook.). The questionnaire took about 10 minutes to complete. Results indicate a learning style preference in one of four areas: visual preference, auditory preference, tactile preference, and kinesthetic preference. Students may have equal strengths in two or more groups which means they can use any of the senses for learning tasks and are therefore identified as exhibiting a multimodal learning preference (Barsch, 1996). This measure was selected because the questions related directly to the type of academic prerequisites and instructional activities typically assigned in classes where active learning takes place. For example the following statement “I require explanations of diagrams, graphs, or visual directions” allows for a direct connection with their ability to visualize or use visual organizers like concept maps. This tool was selected as an instructional tool for purposeful grouping of students but all students were exposed to the same instructional activities.
All students were administered the BLSI at the beginning of the semester. After identifying learning styles, the students were assigned to groups composed of 3-6 people with the same learning style preference. Students remained in these groups throughout the semester and completed 4 group assignments, each targeting a different learning style preference plus a combined type. Assignments were selected based on best-practice research in teaching and learning (Novak, 1998; Nicaise, 1996). The first assignment, a classroom debate, focused on the auditory learning preference. We provided students with legal cases in special education legislation and individuals with disabilities, and students were instructed on how to prepare and interact for a rebate for 20 minutes. The second assignment, concept mapping, focused on the visual learning preference. Concept maps are diagrams indicating interrelationship among concepts. (Novak, 1998; Van Boxel, Van Der Linden, Roelofs, & Erkens, 2002).
Students were provided direct instruction for 20 minutes on how to develop a concept map using class content materials and were provided with instruction on how to create their own. Students were exposed to this type of learning since the beginning of the semester. The third assignment, a Physical Analysis of Environment Accessibility on campus, focused on the tactile learning preference. We provided instruction on the accessibility to building and public places as required by law for 20 minutes and provided measuring tapes and assigned a building to rate for accessibility with specific guidelines for what is accepted by the American with Disabilities Act of 1990. The last assignment, a multimedia learning module that included auditory, visual, and written parts, focused on a kinesthetic learning style. We provided students with access to a campus technology lab and instruction on how to navigate the module for 20 minutes. At the end of the semester students evaluated each assignment and answered an informal open-ended survey (see Appendix 2). We provided sample definitions provided by the inventory of the four learning styles and asked students to identify the style that best represented how they approached class assignments. We then provided students with their learning preference score and strategies other suggested strategies to help them develop their area of learning strength and weakness
S) Word Guess
Numerous studies have been done and much research has been gathered on the reading strategy which involves guessing (Dycus,1997). Findings indicate that it is quite popular and adopted by numerous educators. Although it was initially presented as a means of teaching the meaning of unknown words from context to native L1 learners, the “guessing strategy” has been applied to L2 learners as well. This article analyzes the reading process and discusses various perspectives of when this particular strategy is effective, and to what degree. Finally, it presents studies which indicate its effectiveness
justify its use, and at the same time questions whether or not it should
actually be used by adult L2 learners.
This article review has two purposes:
(a) to demonstrate that active teaching of vocabulary is crucial to effective reading comprehension and that it must correlate listening, speaking, and reading components; and
(b) to suggest that although studies show that the strategy of guessing and word association may enhance and assist general comprehension in certain cases, it may hinder and obstruct learning in others.
The theories which support guessing word meaning from context are based on studies which indicate that word association enhances vocabulary and words can be better recognized if they are taken in context than out of context
(Coady and Nation,1988; Liu and Nation, 1985). Supporters feel that traditional instructional methods of vocabulary teaching are time consuming and lengthy. Some believe that dictionary usage interrupts the flow of reading (Brown, 1972). Others feel that we can justify the use of the guessing strategy due to the tremendous amount of words in the English language that actually need to be learned. The article includes evidence that there are, however, interesting conclusions regarding vocabulary teaching (Barnett,1988; Laufer,1996) and its importance.
Guessing is a very sophisticated strategy. As ESL teachers, in many cases we deal with unsophisticated learners. In the American educational system, each and every student is educated no matter how disadvantaged they are. In this article, readers are classified only as “beginners”,”intermediate” and “advanced”. The reality is that many of our L2 learners come from backgrounds of no education, weak education, generally lacking intellectually.
A professor who has never taught in a situation with this type of students would be more likely to say that perhaps Goodman€™s (1967) famous model of “reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game” is a possibility. The studies that were mentioned in this article seemed to be centered on elite groups of well-educated, intelligent students with confidence and self-esteem. A far more realistic presentation should have included the disadvantaged L2 learners as well.
Based on my experience, I have learned that a more selective and eclectic approach that suits the needs of the learner and the teacher is imperative from the very beginning. You cannot assume that L2 learners have guessing strategy abilities or any amount of vocabulary storage. We, as teachers, are responsible for helping and guiding our students to develop a vocabulary by correlating listening, speaking and reading. They need the oral component, they do need to be taught vocabulary, and they must hear a great deal of meaningful language.
There are many methods teachers use to teach vocabulary or to encourage vocabulary self-learning by their students. Through my experience I have observed that words learned intentionally through reading are better retained than words that are just stumbled upon and casually learned. L2 learners need multiple readings of new material. Teachers should first preview the text for troublesome words and say these words and their dictionary meanings into a tape. By first identifying the unknown words and their meanings, the words become familiar and the teacher can then discuss the content of the text with the students and encourage oral repetition. Using a cassette tape for reinforcement is extremely effective since the students can take it home and as they listen to it the language comes alive again. Dictionary use should be encouraged and in no way should it be considered as a means of interrupting the flow or reading (Brown,1972).
The teacher must assist in finding the definitions since even the dictionary may need a guessing strategy. Sometimes inferential skill is needed to decide which meaning is correct, based on the understanding of the context, and for our L2 learners this is often impossible to do on their own. By seeing, hearing, and then reading this word€™s definition, they increase their chances of remembering the word and gain a better understanding of what they are reading. If the learner does not have teacher assistance in this manner, the average learner will ignore the unknown word, skip over it, miss the meaning of the sentence, the meaning of the paragraph, and in many cases, the meaning of the entire story. A more highly motivated or intelligent learner will use the dictionary but will have difficulty when there are multiple meanings. When the text has many new words, students quickly despair and are discouraged. When the vocabulary of the text is more familiar, students are more likely to continue with the reading task. I strongly feel that mastery of vocabulary is crucial to language literacy. Although it is time-consuming, it is well worth the effort.
T) Discussion method
In the classroom environment ,discussion is the best way of promoting conducive learning and convenient teaching situation. It refers to the method of instruction which give pupils an opportunity to express their views or opinions orally on certain issues. One person speaks at a time,while others are listen. It doesn’t always involve the presentation of new information and concepts. It also invoves sharing of ideas and experiences ,solving problems and promoting tolerance with understanding. Discussion method is suitable in many situations and can be used in many situations of teaching and learning.There are different forms of discussion that can be used in the classroom.
Kochhar(1985)identifies two major types of discussions which are formal and informal.
Informal discussions are governed by pre-determined set of rules and it includes debates,panels,symposia etc.
Whilst formal discussions may involve whole group or small groups of people divided with the intention of discussing themes . These are not governed by pre-determnined set of rules.Lets focus on the informal type of discussions.
In the classroom discussions involve a free verbal interchange of ideas for all pupils as a whole. Here the teacher is the leader who guides the discussion . Through conducting the discussion process,ask questions and decides on who should speak. This method can be suitably used in the first stage of child book child approach.
This is where the teacher asks about the assummed knowledge through reviewing pupils’ experiences .For example Do you have friends? Why do you need friends for? Do you sometimes quarrel with them ? What do you do after have a quarrel with a friend?
Small group discussions is better than a whole class discussion. It encourages more pupils to give their own views through open participation . Pupils are divided into small groups of ,four,five,six ,seven ,eight or nine and given questions or task to discuss and then reportback. Each group should have a group leader who is instructed to control the discussion process and someone who can reportback of what has be discussed.
The group setting arrangements should be in such a way that pupils are relaxed and can hear ,see each otherwell. This type of discussions is more appropriate in the second stage of the child book child approach. Which happens to be evaluation stage where pupils can discuss questions related to the text found in the book.For example in the parable of a prodigal son in the bible pupils can discuss this questions:
• Why do you think father received his son in a positive way?
• Was that the right thing to do?
• Why do you think in such similar situation?
U) Jigsaw Method
The Jigsaw method is a cooperative learning technique in which students work in small groups. Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. In this method, each group member is assigned to become an “expert” on some aspect of a unit of study. After reading about their area of expertise, the experts from different groups meet to discuss their topic, and then return to their groups and take turns teaching their topics to their groupmates.
As I mentioned above, the jigsaw strategy is a unique cooperative learning approach. With this approach, students work together as a team toward learning the target material–particularly when that material contains several chunks of related information. Although many students will arrive in your classroom with some jigsawing experience, there’s always going to be several who will have no idea how to proceed. For that reason, I would strongly suggest doing a simple one-class-period jigsaw activity before proceeding to more challenging and involved assignments.
Step 1: Start by determining your target material. What is it that you want your kids to learn?
Obviously that could be anything that you want to choose, but for this example, I will choose as the target material the question, “What does it take to become a successful student?” The answer to that question will become the completed jigsaw at the conclusion of the activity.
Step 2: Determine how many pieces there will be in that puzzle. I’m using the term “pieces” to indicate separate chunks of information regarding the target material (the completed puzzle).
For this example, those pieces might include the following:
Supplies and organization
Preparing to enter the classroom
Positive classroom behavior
Study and homework techniques
Other factors affecting school success
Step 3: Once you have determined the specific pieces, it’s time to divide your class into groups (jigsaws) of four or five depending on the number of students in the class and the number of “pieces” for the puzzle. Have your kids sit together in their groups and explain to them that this is their home group or jigsaw group. Tell them that they are all about to become experts on one aspect of the question, and in order to do, that they will have to temporarily leave their new group and join an expert group. Note: I’ve found that this it’s helpful to have numbered signs in each group area so that kids know what group they started in, what group they’re going to, and what group they return to at the conclusion of the activity. Remind them to note the numbered group area in which they are currently sitting before temporarily dividing them into expert groups.
Step 4: To form the expert groups, you can pick the simple and straightforward method of having your kids count off one thru five until everyone has a number and then group all the ones in an expert group (or piece group), all of the twos in another expert group, and so forth.
Step 5: After the kids have relocated to the expert groups, visit each expert group with a note card containing the numbered pieces of the puzzle. Explain to the class that each expert group is to brainstorm ideas related to their particular topic, but NOT ideas related to any of the other topics listed. So, expert group number one does Supplies and Organization, expert group number two does Preparing to Enter the Classroom, and so on. Remind them that they will need to take notes on what they are discussing so that when they return to their original jigsaw group, they can “teach” the other members of their jigsaw group what they learned.
Step 6: After an appropriate time is allowed for brainstorming, ask students to reassemble in their original jigsaw groups. Each group leader, then calls on each expert to share ideas from his or her notes.
Step 7: Once all experts have shared their ideas, the jigsaw puzzle is now completely assembled and they will be able to see the overall picture of what it takes to become a successful student–the target material.
Step 8: Now it’s time for the evaluation. For this simple introductory example activity, you may want to go with a very informal assessment. For instance you may ask each jigsaw group to summarize in one sentence what it takes to become a successful student.
V) Group Investigation
Cooperative Learning (CL) is more than having students work in groups: it is a fundamental shift from teacher as information provider and sole source of truth, to teacher as facilitator. It involves the use of tasks whose completion requires the combined efforts and skills of the individual group members. Group Investigation (GI) is one form of CL, and the focus of this paper. The following sections consider the technique in general, origins of the model, key decisions teachers must make, effects on learners, and implementation concerns and gas in the research base.
In GI, students form interest groups within which to plan and implement an investigation, and synthesize the findings into a group presentation for the class. The teacher’s general role is to make the students aware of resources that may be helpful while carrying out the investigation. GI includes four important components (“the four I’s”): investigation, interaction, interpretation, and instrinsic motivation. Investigation refers to the fact that groups focus on the process of inquiring about a chosen topic. Interaction is a hallmark of all cooperative learning methods, required for students to explore ideas and help one another learn. Interpretation occurs when the group synthesizes and elaborates on the findings of each member in order to enhance understanding and clarity of ideas. Finally, instrinsic motivation is kindled in students by granting them autonomy in the investigative process.
Implementation of GI proceeds in six step. First, the teacher presents a multi-faceted problem to the class, and students choose an interest group. The problem posed here is articularly important, as a variety of reactions from students is necessary for appropriate group informatin. Teachers should avoid giving their own ideas or rejecting ideas from students. Second, groups plan their investigation – the procedures, tasks and goals consistent with the with the chosen subtopic. Third, groups carry out the investigation as planned in the above step. The teacher’s role at this step is to follow the investigative process, offering help when required: suggesting resources, ensuring a variety of skills is being used, etc. Fourth, groups plan their presentation. They evaluate what they have learned, and synthesize it into a form that can be understood by the class. Fifth, groups conduct the presentation. Finally, the teacher and students evaluate the investigation and resulting presentations. Throughout the process, group representatives often make reports to the class, helping group members appreciate that they are part of a larger social unit.
As is generally found with CL techniques, research consistently finds higher levels of achievement from GI activities as compared with whole-class instrution, paarticularly on matters of higher-level cognition. It has also been found that GI improves positive inter-ethnic relations and enhances intrinsic motivation. Compared to other CL methods, GI has strong roots in giving students control over their learning.
W) Role Playing
Role play in a simulation exercise where persons take on assumed roles in order to act out a scenario in a contrived setting. The learners or participants can act out the assigned roles in order to explore the scenario, apply skills (maybe communication, negotiation, debate etc.), experience the scenario from another view point, evoke and understand emotions that maybe alien to them. It helps to make sense of theory and gathers together the concepts into a practical experience.This deeply rooted in the principles of constructivist teaching.
Role-play is also used a term for gaming, simulation and in couples interaction. In this we are going to talk about role-play as a teaching/training tool.
Constructing meaning in a learner is a far better way to make learning memorable than simple transmission. In children the excitement of the role play, the interaction and stimulation to visual, auditory and kinaesthetic styles of learning helps a broad range of learners.
In adults the tool respects their prior knowledge, experience and the reality they bring to a concept. It helps to make the concept being taught to be constructed and then reflected on.
It helps to move beyond any comfort zones and helps bring on attitudinal change through different viewpoints too. It helps to develop all domains of learning, cognitive (knowledge) , psychomotor (skills) and affective ( emotional) It’s also a lot of fun (trust me) and helps shake off those lecture room cobwebs . There is plenty of evidence that confirms the retention from participation is far higher than any other modes of learning.
X) Problem Solving
What is a Problem? A problem exists when a problem solver has a goal but does not know how to accomplish it. Specifically, a problem occurs when a situation is in a given state, a problem solver wants the situation to be in a goal state, and the problem solver is not aware of an obvious way to transform the situation from the given state to the goal state. In his classic monograph, On Problem Solving, the Gestalt psychologist Karl Duncker defined a problem as follows:
A problem arises when a living creature has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached. Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there has to be recourse to thinking. Such thinking has the task of devising some action, which may mediate between the existing and desired situations. (1945, p. 1)
This definition includes high-level academic tasks for a typical middle school student such as writing a convincing essay, solving an unfamiliar algebra word problem, or figuring out how an electric motor works, but does not include low-level academic tasks such as pronouncing the sound of the printed word “cat,” stating the answer to “2 2 =___,” or changing a word from singular to plural form.
What is Problem Solving? According to Mayer and Wittrock, problem solving is “cognitive processing directed at achieving a goal when no solution method is obvious to the problem solver” (2006, p. 287). This definition consists of four parts:
(1) problem solving is cognitive, that is, problem solving occurs within the problem solver’s cognitive system and can only be inferred from the problem solver’s behavior,
(2) problem solving is a process, that is, problem solving involves applying cognitive processes to cognitive representations in the problem solver’s cognitive system,
(3) problem solving is directed, that is, problem solving is guided by the problem solver’s goals, and
(4) problem solving is personal, that is, problem solving depends on the knowledge and skill of the problem solver.
In sum, problem solving is cognitive processing directed at transforming a problem from the given state to the goal state when the problem solver is not immediately aware of a solution method. For example, problem solving occurs when a high school student writes a convincing essay on the causes of the American Civil War, understands how the heart works from reading a biology textbook, or solves a complex arithmetic word problem
Problem solving is related to other terms such as thinking, reasoning, decision making, critical thinking, and creative thinking. Thinking refers to a problem solver’s cognitive processing, but it includes both directed thinking (which is problem solving) and undirected thinking (such as daydreaming). Thus, thinking is a broader term that includes problem solving as a subset of thinking (i.e., a kind of thinking, i.e., directed thinking).
Reasoning, decision making, critical thinking, and creative thinking are subsets of problem solving, that is, kinds of problem solving. Reasoning refers to problem solving with a specific task in which the goal is to draw a conclusion from premises using logical rules based on deduction or induction. For example, if students know that all four-sided figures are quadrilaterals and that all squares have four sides, then by using deduction they can conclude that all squares are quadrilaterals. If they are given the sequence 2–4–6–8, then by induction they can conclude that the next number should be 10. Decision making refers to problem solving with a specific task in which the goal is to choose one of two or more alternatives based on some criteria. For example, a decision making task is to decide whether someone would rather have $100 for sure or a 1% chance of getting $100,000. Thus, both reasoning and decision-making are kinds of problem solving that are characterized by specific kinds of tasks.
Finally, creative thinking and critical thinking refer to specific aspects of problem solving, respectively. Creative thinking involves generating alternatives that meet some criteria, such as listing all the possible uses for a brick, whereas critical thinking involves evaluating how well various alternatives meet some criteria, such as determining which are the best answers for the brick problem. For example, in scientific problem solving situations, creative thinking is involved in generating hypotheses and critical thinking is involved in testing them. Creative thinking and critical thinking can be involved in reasoning and decision making.
Y) Games Team Tournament
– TGT: Team method – games- tournament (De Vries and Edwards, 1973) The classroom organization with this method allows us to create an intergroup procedure so as to compare the degree of performance of the different teams. It consists of creating teams of 4 to 5 students and arrange a competition with the members of the other teams. The teams are the cooperative element of the TGT (Teams-Games-Tournament). The TGT guarantee the implication and participation of each and every member of the group and allow them to compete with the other members of the other teams who have a similar level to their own, which reduces considerably the angst of the competition. As a negative aspect, we can suggest that with this method the interest in the subject may disappear amidst the competitive game and extrinsic motivation may be optimized.
– STAD Student Team-Achievement Divisions (Slavin, 1986). This method shares intergroup cooperation and intergroup comtetition with the previous one. The students are divided into heterogeneous groups of four or five members. The teacher presents a topic to all the class, with all the explanations and exemplifications s/he considers necessary. The students work in teams for different sessions where they discuss, compare, widen, formulate questions, elaborate conceptual maps, basis of orientation, memorize, etc. and make sure all the members of the group have learned what they were asked to.
After that, the teacher assesses each student individually and transforms the individual qualification in group qualification using a system known as “performance in divisions”. This method compares the performance of each student as regards the reference of a group of a similar level. Thus we make sure each student can contribute to the success of his/her team, given his/her possibilities, and it can also be the case that a student with a lower performance level provides a higher score to his/her team than another student with a higher performance level because s/he has been better placed in his/her division.
– TAI Team Assisted Individualization (Slavin i cols., 1984). This method combines cooperative learning and individuated instruction: all the students work on the same, but each of them follows a specific program.